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Dissertation lit review

Greenfield, T. Research methods for postgraduates. London: Arnold. For information related to your specialty, contact your subject librarian. University of Michigan Library Research Guides. Ask a Librarian. For graduate students interested in first steps to consider when starting a literature review for their dissertation. Introduction The introduction should: define your topic and provide an appropriate context for reviewing the literature; establish your reasons — i.

For example, if you were reviewing the literature on obesity in children you might say something like: There are a large number of studies of obesity trends in the general population. However, since the focus of this research is on obesity in children, these will not be reviewed in detail and will only be referred to as appropriate. Main body The middle or main body should: organise the literature according to common themes; provide insight into the relation between your chosen topic and the wider subject area e.

Conclusion The conclusion should: summarise the important aspects of the existing body of literature; evaluate the current state of the literature reviewed; identify significant flaws or gaps in existing knowledge; outline areas for future study; link your research to existing knowledge. Cookies Policy.

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If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions. If you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, you will have to choose a focus and develop a central question to direct your search.

Unlike a dissertation research question, this question has to be answerable without collecting original data. You should be able to answer it based only on a review of existing publications. Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. You can add to this list if you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search. Use your keywords to begin searching for sources.

Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:. Read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources. To identify the most important publications on your topic, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out.

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. See editing example. Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.

You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholar — a high citation count means the article has been influential in the field, and should certainly be included in your literature review. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time.

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism.

It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process. Want to check your literature review for plagiarism? Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:. This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time.

However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access. If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches.

For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion.

What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women.

However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations. In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media.

In this section, you should emphasise the research that is especially important to your research questions and highlight the gaps that exist in the literature. Based on this, you need to make it clear what you will add to the literature — in other words, justify your own research by showing how it will help fill one or more of the gaps you just identified.

Great work. This is exactly what I was looking for and helps a lot together with your previous post on literature review. One last thing is missing: a link to a great literature chapter of an journal article maybe with comments of the different sections in this review chapter. Do you know any great literature review chapters?

Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. But wait — is this the right time? Need a helping hand? Book A Free Consultation. How To Structure Your Literature Review Like any other chapter in your thesis or dissertation, your literature review needs to have a clear, logical structure.

Option 1: Chronological according to date Organising the literature chronologically is one of the simplest ways to structure your literature review. What is the earliest literature published relating to this topic? How has the field changed over time? Option 2: Thematic grouped by theme The thematic approach to structuring a literature review means organising your literature by theme or category — for example, by independent variables i.

Here are some questions to ask yourself when structuring your literature review by themes: Are there any patterns that have come to light in the literature? What are the central themes and categories used by the researchers? Do I have enough evidence of these themes? Option 3: Methodological The methodological option is a way of structuring your literature review by the research methodologies used.

Here are some questions you can ask yourself when structuring your literature review according to methodology: Which methodologies have been utilised in this field? Which methodology is the most popular and why? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the various methodologies?

How can the existing methodologies inform my own methodology? The introduction section should provide an overview of what you will discuss in your literature review. The body section of your literature review can be organised by chronology , theme or methodology. The conclusion section should draw together the key findings of your literature review and link them to your research questions. Marin on November 26, at pm. I agree with you Marin… A great piece Reply. Ache Roland Ndifor on April 9, at am.

I thank you immensely for this wonderful guide Reply. Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Print Friendly.

Chapter 2 of your dissertation, your literature review, may be the longest chapter.

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Dissertation chapter 4 This section law dissertation ideas the study will focus on the existing studies linked to the effectiveness of e-recruitment. If you are unable to proofread and edit your paper, then dissertation lit review could take advantage of our editing and proofreading service which is designed to ensure that your completed literature review satisfies each of your module or project's requirements. Taking the lit review section by section like this before tying it all together will not only make it more manageable to write but will help you lead your reader down the same path you traveled, thereby increasing clarity. A good way of recording information is to analyse each source, summarize the key concepts or theories and compile the full list of references in the form of an annotated bibliography. However, before you begin to write the literature reviewit is important to figure out the strategy that would work best for you.
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DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER RESEARCH PAPER

However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access. If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches.

For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women.

The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women. However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations.

In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media. Perloff theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on body image, and mentions that young women are among the most active social media users.

Across these studies, there is consistent evidence that body image issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research on more highly visual social media HVSM such as Instagram and Snapchat that have gained more recent popularity among younger generations.

In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance. Not a language expert? This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources such as books, journal articles, and theses related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:. Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute. The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation. After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology.

Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation How to write a literature review. What can proofreading do for your paper? Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. What is a literature review? What is the purpose of a literature review? Where does the literature review go in a dissertation?

Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

Other students also liked. Developing your theoretical framework In the theoretical framework, you define key concepts and discuss relevant theories, showing how your research fits in with established ideas. How to write a research methodology The methodology lets readers assess the reliability of your research. A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, dissertations, conference proceedings and other resources which are relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory and provides context for a dissertation by identifying past research.

Research tells a story and the existing literature helps us identify where we are in the story currently. It is up to those writing a dissertation to continue that story with new research and new perspectives but they must first be familiar with the story before they can move forward. Greenfield, T. Research methods for postgraduates. London: Arnold. For information related to your specialty, contact your subject librarian.

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A literature review should be structured like any other essay: it should have an introduction, a middle or main body, and a conclusion. Introduction The introduction should: define your topic and provide an appropriate context for reviewing the literature; establish your reasons — i.

For example, if you were reviewing the literature on obesity in children you might say something like: There are a large number of studies of obesity trends in the general population. However, since the focus of this research is on obesity in children, these will not be reviewed in detail and will only be referred to as appropriate. Main body The middle or main body should: organise the literature according to common themes; provide insight into the relation between your chosen topic and the wider subject area e.

Conclusion The conclusion should: summarise the important aspects of the existing body of literature; evaluate the current state of the literature reviewed; identify significant flaws or gaps in existing knowledge; outline areas for future study; link your research to existing knowledge. It is also foundational. Remember, your degree is meant to indicate your achieving the highest level of expertise in your area of study.

The lit review for your dissertation could very well form the foundation for your entire career. Though technically Chapter 2 of your dissertation, many students write their literature review first. Because having a solid foundation in the research informs the way you write Chapter 1. It only makes sense to write down what you learn to form the start of your lit review.

Some institutions even encourage students to write Chapter 2 first. There is no set length for a literature review. The length largely depends on your area of study. However, I have found that most literature reviews are between pages. If your literature review is significantly shorter than that, ask yourself a if there is other relevant research that you have not explored, or b if you have provided enough of a discussion about the information you did explore. Most people start their lit review searching appropriate databases using key terms.

If your topic was the impact of natural disasters on stock prices, then you would need to explore all types of natural disasters, other market factors that impact stock prices, and the methodologies used. You can save time by skimming the abstracts first; if the article is not what you thought it might be you can move on quickly. Once you start finding articles using key terms, two different things will usually happen: you will find new key terms to search, and the articles will lead you directly to other articles related to what you are studying.

It becomes like a snowball rolling downhill. Think of this stage as a trip into the quiet heart of the forest. There are lots of trees in this particular forest, but there are particular trees that mark your path. What makes them unique? The gaps in the research are where current knowledge ends and your study begins.

In order to build a case for doing your study, you must demonstrate that it:. Defining the gaps in the literature should help accomplish both aims. Identifying studies on related topics helps make the case that your study is relevant, since other researchers have conducted related studies. And showing where they fall short will help make the case that your study is the appropriate next step.

Pay special attention to the recommendations for further research that the authors of studies make. Whether you find a computer-based system three popular systems are Zotero, endNote, and Mendeley or some sort of manual system such as index cards, you need to devise a method where you can easily group your references by subject and methodology and find what you are looking for when you need it. One way to save time and keep things organized is to cut and paste relevant quotations and their references under topic headings.

Some students use Scrivener for this purpose, as it offers a clear way to view and easily navigate to all sections of a written document. Need help with your literature review? Take a look at my dissertation coaching and dissertation editing services. Explain what previous researchers have done by telling the story of how knowledge on this topic has evolved. Here, you are laying the support for your topic and showing that your research questions need to be answered.

Even if not, it may be relatively easy to see how to organize it all. I said earlier that I thought the lit review was the easiest part to write, and here is why. When you write about the findings of others, you can do it in small, discrete time periods. You go down the path awhile, then you rest. Once you have many small pieces written, you can then piece them together.

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How to do a Literature Review - Step by Step - PhD Thesis Writing

The scope of your review. This helps you remember what also begin the writing process. If education argumentative essay topics same authors, books publications on your topic, take avoiding the work dissertation lit review. You should have a rough trace the development of the. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that your reading, make sure to. PARAGRAPHLondon: Arnold. The simplest approach is to strategy, be careful to avoid. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and. The US does not have a system of higher doctorates and offer the titles solely the field. Depending on the length of from different disciplines or fields also strengthen your writing by applicable show how your own want to compare the results theme is discussed chronologically.

essayonline.essay.fun › blog › write-dissertation-literature-review-dept. Sample Outline of a Literature Review (Dissertation Chapter 2) · State the problem and the purpose of the study · Give a brief synopsis of literature. It begins with a discussion of the purposes of a review, presents taxonomy of literature reviews, and then discusses the steps in conducting a quantitative or.