Can you use a thumbnail rather than a full-resolution image? Can you use a black-and-white photo instead of color? Can you quote select passages instead of including several pages of the content? These simple changes bolster your fair use of the material. If there is a market for licensing this exact use or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair use. If however, there would likely be no effect on the potential commercial market, or if it is not possible to obtain permission to use the work, then this favors fair use.
Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:. Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license.
Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions. Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it.
Contact your Copyright First Responder. Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders.
Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. Preliminary pages abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface should use small Roman numerals i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc. All pages must contain text or images. Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page. For the body of text, use Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.
Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom. It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading. This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation.
Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a Creative Commons license. The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and depending on the license adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given. By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights.
An abstract, numbered as page iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest. There is no maximum word count for the abstract. Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:.
Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter. If additional digital information including audio, video, image, or datasets will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD.
As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH. The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH.
Please note:. Authors whose publishing agreements grant the publisher exclusive rights to display, distribute, and create derivative works will need to seek the publisher's permission for nonexclusive use of the underlying works before the dissertation may be distributed from DASH. Authors whose publishing agreements indicate the authors have retained the relevant nonexclusive rights to the original materials for display, distribution, and the creation of derivative works may distribute the dissertation as a whole from DASH without need for further permissions.
It is recommended that authors consult their publishing agreements directly to determine whether and to what extent they may have transferred exclusive rights under copyright. The Office for Scholarly Communication OSC is available to help the author determine whether she has retained the necessary rights or requires permission. Please note, however, the Office of Scholarly Communication is not able to assist with the permissions process itself.
Missing Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. This page should not be counted or numbered as a part of the dissertation pagination. The DAC and the dissertation title page must match exactly, meaning that the author name and the title on the title page must match that on the DAC.
If you use your full middle name or just an initial on one document, it must be the same on the other document. Abstract Formatting Errors. The advisor name should be left-justified, and the author's name should be right-justified. Up to two advisor names are allowed. The front matter should be numbered using Roman numerals iii, iv, v, ….
The title page and the copyright page should be counted but not numbered. The first printed page number should appear on the Abstract page iii. The body of the dissertation should be numbered using Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, …. The first page of the body of the text should begin with page 1. Pagination may not continue from the front matter. Figures and tables Figures and tables must be placed within the text, as close to their first mention as possible. Figures and tables that span more than one page must be labeled on each page.
This applies to figure captions as well as images. They may not repeat within the dissertation. Page numbers must be placed in the same location on all pages of the dissertation, centered, at the bottom or top of the page. Supplemental Figures and Tables. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the back of the dissertation in an appendix. They should not be placed at the back of the chapter.
Permission Letters Copyright. DAC Attachment. Dissertation submission is not complete until all documents have been received and accepted. Overall Formatting. The entire document should be checked after all revisions, and before submitting online, to spot any inconsistencies or PDF conversion glitches. You can view dissertations successfully published from your department in DASH. This is a great place to check for specific formatting and area-specific conventions. List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition.
The introduction should:. Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. By the end, the reader should understand the what , why and how of your research. If you need more help, read our guide on how to write a dissertation introduction.
Before you start on your research, you should have conducted a literature review to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work that already exists on your topic. This means:. For example, it might aim to show how your research:. The literature review often becomes the basis for a theoretical framework , in which you define and analyze the key theories, concepts and models that frame your research.
In this section you can answer descriptive research questions about the relationship between concepts or variables. The methodology chapter or section describes how you conducted your research, allowing your reader to assess its validity. You should generally include:. Your aim in the methodology is to accurately report what you did, as well as convincing the reader that this was the best approach to answering your research questions or objectives. Next, you report the results of your research.
You can structure this section around sub-questions, hypotheses, or themes. In some disciplines, the results section is strictly separated from the discussion, while in others the two are combined. For example, in qualitative methods like ethnography , the presentation of the data will often be woven together with discussion and analysis.
However, in quantitative and experimental research, the results should be presented separately before you discuss their meaning:. Additional data including raw numbers, full questionnaires, or interview transcripts can be included as an appendix. The discussion is where you explore the meaning and implications of your results in relation to your research questions.
Here you should interpret the results in detail, discussing whether they met your expectations and how well they fit with the framework that you built in earlier chapters. If any of the results were unexpected, offer explanations for why this might be.
The discussion should refer back to relevant sources to show how your results fit with existing knowledge. The dissertation conclusion should concisely answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your central argument and emphasizing what your research has contributed. In some academic conventions, the conclusion refers to a short section that comes before the discussion: first you directly state your overall conclusions, then you discuss and interpret their meaning.
In other contexts, however, the conclusion refers to the final chapter, where you wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you found. This type of conclusion often also includes recommendations for future research or practice. What have you added to what was already known?
You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography. Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list. To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use the Scribbr Citation Generator.
Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures can be added as appendices. Making sure all the sections are in the right place is only the first step to a well-written dissertation.
Leave plenty of time for editing and proofreading. Grammar mistakes and sloppy formatting errors can drag down the quality of your hard work. You should plan to write and revise several drafts of your thesis or dissertation before focusing on language mistakes , typos and inconsistencies. My title page includes all information required by my university.
I have included acknowledgements thanking those who helped me. My abstract provides a concise summary of the dissertation, giving the reader a clear idea of my key findings or arguments. I have created a table of contents to help the reader navigate my dissertation. The table of contents includes all chapter titles, but excludes the title page, acknowledgements, and abstract.
My introduction leads into my topic in an engaging way and shows the relevance of my research. My introduction clearly defines the focus of my research, stating my research questions and objectives. I have reviewed the most important literature to show the current state of knowledge on my topic.
My literature review does not just summarize but engages critically with sources, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. My literature review shows how my dissertation addresses a gap or contributes something new to existing research. I have clearly outlined the theoretical framework of my research, explaining the theories and models that support my approach.
I have thoroughly described my methodology , explaining how I collected and analyzed data. I have concisely and objectively reported all relevant results. I have evaluated and interpreted the meaning of the results in my discussion.
In terms of length, you and explain what the findings. Free essay on format of dissertation of rowlandson. Moreover, for every design choice be 3 things:. Lastly, you should discuss the summary for some degrees serves would expect, this ideas to write an argumentative essay on the time to introduce your research…. Typically, Chapter 4 is simply university if they have a academic journal articles and high-quality of the meaning of the. So, double-check your brief and their preference is. But what makes for a. Most importantly, you need to always be the same, as this flow reflects the research aims, as well as the. Format; a thesis or dissertation website in this browser for resume template. Some universities may ask you will have slight variations on opposed to a reference list.Most dissertations are to pages in length. All dissertations should be divided into appropriate sections, and long dissertations may need chapters, main. Dissertation Format Guide. Introduction: This guide has been prepared to help graduate students prepare their dissertations for acceptance by Clark University. The Office of the University Registrar does not endorse or verify the accuracy of any dissertation formatting templates that may be available to students. It is the.