|Dissertation research proposal sample||Theme : What is the theme of this chapter? I have thoroughly described my methodologyexplaining how I collected and analyzed data. This is a undergraduate dissertation structure investment that will save you from embarrassment after all that effort and stress you went through. The order of sections can also vary between fields and countries. The readers should figure out what, why, when and how of your study once they have read the introduction. You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography.|
|Undergraduate dissertation structure||Any information that is not directly relevant to your research topic but your readers might be interested undergraduate dissertation structure interview transcripts etc. Buy pre written essays if the proposal is not mandatory in your university, you should still write it and discuss the points with your mentor. L ink : what's coming next? The discussion should refer back to relevant sources to show how your results fit with existing knowledge. This may be one of the most challenging, lengthy and time-consuming projects you've encountered. Your paper without awkward language mistakes?|
|Steps to write an argumentative essay||In a thematic structure, the undergraduate dissertation structure chapters present analysis and discussion of different themes relevant to answer the research question and support the overall argument of the dissertation. A theoretical dissertation focuses on secondary research — you use data collected and presented by other researchers to develop an argument. Table of contents This section is straightforward. Did you adopt a new research approach to investigate the topic? If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English. However, the acknowledgements section is usually optional.|
If you have used a lot of tables and figures in your dissertation, you should itemize them in a numbered list. You can automatically generate this list using the Insert Caption feature in Word. If you have used a lot of abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily look up their meanings.
If you have used a lot of highly specialized terms that will not be familiar to your reader, it might be a good idea to include a glossary. List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition. The introduction should:. Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research.
By the end, the reader should understand the what , why and how of your research. If you need more help, read our guide on how to write a dissertation introduction. Before you start on your research, you should have conducted a literature review to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work that already exists on your topic.
This means:. For example, it might aim to show how your research:. The literature review often becomes the basis for a theoretical framework , in which you define and analyze the key theories, concepts and models that frame your research. In this section you can answer descriptive research questions about the relationship between concepts or variables.
The methodology chapter or section describes how you conducted your research, allowing your reader to assess its validity. You should generally include:. Your aim in the methodology is to accurately report what you did, as well as convincing the reader that this was the best approach to answering your research questions or objectives.
Next, you report the results of your research. You can structure this section around sub-questions, hypotheses, or themes. In some disciplines, the results section is strictly separated from the discussion, while in others the two are combined. For example, in qualitative methods like ethnography , the presentation of the data will often be woven together with discussion and analysis. However, in quantitative and experimental research, the results should be presented separately before you discuss their meaning:.
Additional data including raw numbers, full questionnaires, or interview transcripts can be included as an appendix. The discussion is where you explore the meaning and implications of your results in relation to your research questions. Here you should interpret the results in detail, discussing whether they met your expectations and how well they fit with the framework that you built in earlier chapters.
If any of the results were unexpected, offer explanations for why this might be. The discussion should refer back to relevant sources to show how your results fit with existing knowledge. The dissertation conclusion should concisely answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your central argument and emphasizing what your research has contributed.
In some academic conventions, the conclusion refers to a short section that comes before the discussion: first you directly state your overall conclusions, then you discuss and interpret their meaning. In other contexts, however, the conclusion refers to the final chapter, where you wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you found.
This type of conclusion often also includes recommendations for future research or practice. What have you added to what was already known? You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography. Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list.
To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use the Scribbr Citation Generator. Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures can be added as appendices.
Making sure all the sections are in the right place is only the first step to a well-written dissertation. Leave plenty of time for editing and proofreading. Grammar mistakes and sloppy formatting errors can drag down the quality of your hard work.
You should plan to write and revise several drafts of your thesis or dissertation before focusing on language mistakes , typos and inconsistencies. My title page includes all information required by my university. I have included acknowledgements thanking those who helped me. My abstract provides a concise summary of the dissertation, giving the reader a clear idea of my key findings or arguments. I have created a table of contents to help the reader navigate my dissertation.
The table of contents includes all chapter titles, but excludes the title page, acknowledgements, and abstract. My introduction leads into my topic in an engaging way and shows the relevance of my research. My introduction clearly defines the focus of my research, stating my research questions and objectives. I have reviewed the most important literature to show the current state of knowledge on my topic. My literature review does not just summarize but engages critically with sources, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing research.
My literature review shows how my dissertation addresses a gap or contributes something new to existing research. The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.
APA, Harvard, etc. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually — its far too error prone. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same. A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation.
So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one. The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count see this post which covers how to reduce word count. And there you have it — the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is typically as follows:. Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process asking, investigating and answering your research question.
Moreover, the research question s should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the Grad Coach Blog. Very helpful and accessible. Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions.
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question. The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
The conclusion chapter attempts to answer the core research question. Title page The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. Acknowledgements This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey.
Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies. Any tutors, mentors or advisors. Your family and friends, especially spouse for adult learners studying part-time. Abstract or executive summary The dissertation abstract or executive summary for some degrees serves to provide the first-time reader and marker or moderator with a big-picture view of your research project.
For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points at a minimum : Your research questions and aims — what key question s did your research aim to answer? Your methodology — how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question s? Your findings — following your own research, what did do you discover? Your conclusions — based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question s? Need a helping hand?
Table of contents This section is straightforward. So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions: What will you be investigating in plain-language, big picture-level? Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original? What are your research aims and research question s? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review next chapter.
What is the scope of your study? How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt? How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them? Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement? How does your research fit into the bigger picture? How does your research contribute something original? How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own? In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions: Exactly HOW will you carry out your research i.
Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way i. Reference list The reference list is straightforward. Appendices The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. Time to recap… And there you have it — the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. Derek Jansen on July 8, at am. Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation. Tim on November 2, at pm.
Thanks so much this helped me a lot! Ade Adeniyi on February 3, at pm. Derek Jansen on February 4, at am.
The University of Manchester's Academic Phrasebank has some useful advise about how to write your introduction. At the other end of the process is your conclusion, which should be a summary of what you have found or achieved in the dissertation. How far have you been able to achieve the aims and objectives which you set out in your introduction? How overall have you answered your central research question s? You may choose to provide some recommendations, either for practical implications of your research or for further research to take place.
The Academic Phrasebank has some good tips of what you should aim to cover in your conclusion. Your references and any appendices are not usually included in the word count of your dissertation although in-text citations are included. The reference list would usually just include those items which you have directly cited in the dissertation and not other items which you have read for background information, but your department will give you specific guidance on this.
Remember to follow the format and presentation of the referencing style chosen by your department. As with your conclusion, why not write the reference list as you go? Explore tip 9 for some advice on using reference management software. You won't necessarily need to include appendices, but they might be a good place to note any supplementary information about the dissertation.
Our Skills Guide on writing structure gives further guidance. Search these Guides Search. Top 10 Tips. Think carefully about how to structure your argument Think carefully about how to structure your argument As you start to move towards writing your dissertation, think carefully about how to structure your argument. Using literature throughout your dissertation We've explored already the importance of literature in your dissertation, but remember that it's not confined just to a literature review section.
The following gives an example structure for empirical research: Introduction - where you set out the aims and objectives of your dissertation, and where you might explain why you have chosen your specific topic. References Appendices where appropriate.
First out of the gates Many people find the introduction and conclusion sections the most difficult to write. Finish with a bang At the other end of the process is your conclusion, which should be a summary of what you have found or achieved in the dissertation. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Library Guides. Dissertations: Structure. Dissertations Structured by Sections Conventions that guide the presentation, structuring and referencing of dissertations vary for different disciplines. A common structure for dissertations and extended reports is: 1 Abstract 2 Introduction 3 Literature Review 4 Methodology 5 Results 6 Discussion 7 Conclusion 8 Bibliography 9 Appendices Note on this structure: Scientific dissertations are likely to have separate Results chapter and Discussion chapter.
Dissertations Structured by Themes Arts and Humanities Many dissertations in the humanities have a thematic structure: 1 Introduction 2 Background this is sometimes part of the introduction and not a separate chapter 3 Theme 1 4 Theme 2 5 Theme Argument : What argument does this chapter present? Material : What material you will be using for this chapter?
Formatting Long Documents You should try to format your document using the outline and table of contents functions in Word. Abstract An abstract is: A short summary of the whole dissertation content. It summarises the reason for focus, research aims, methodological approach, and conclusions of the dissertation. Generally it has a word limit of about words.
Introduction The introduction The introduction may include the following content: Introduce the topic of the dissertation. Why is the topic of interest? Background information on the subject. Main debates in the field. Identify the scope of your research What hasn't already been said by the literature? What do you seek to investigate, and why? Mention the aim of the dissertation. Mention your research question or hypothesis Indicate your approach Introduce your main argument especially if you have a research question, rather than hypothesis.
Outline the dissertation structure introduce the main points that you will discuss in the order they will be presented. Conclusion A good conclusion can make a difference in the mark of your dissertation. In the conclusion, you can present: Restatement of your research aims and objectives and how these have been met with a summary of your findings and conclusions.
Possible contribution to knowledge for the postgraduate level Possible recommendations Possible limitations. Bibliography This s a reference list, which includes all of the materials, books, and articles that you have cited and read for the dissertation. Strong Paragraphs Paragraphs, and namely strong paragraphs, are an essential device to keep your writing organised and logical. Strong paragraphs You need to write so-called strong paragraphs wherein you present a topic, discuss it and conclude it, as afar as reasonably possible.
PEEL technique This is a strategy to write strong paragraphs. In each paragraph you should include the following: P oint : what do you want to talk about? E vidence : show me! E valuation : tell me! L ink : what's coming next? Example of a strong paragraph, with PEEL technique: Paragraph bridges Paragraphs may be linked to each other through "paragraph bridges". Example 1: Last sentence of a paragraph: First sentence of next paragraph: In short, a number of efforts have been made to Despite these efforts , Example 2: Last sentence of a paragraph: First sentence of next paragraph: Smith suggests that there are two types of personalities: introverts and extroverts Introverts typically favour Last sentence of a paragraph:.
First sentence of next paragraph:. In short, a number of efforts have been made to