I argue that the space of the specter is a force of representation, an invisible site in which the uncertainties of antebellum economic and social change become visible. Methodologically, Apparitional Economies moves through historical events and textual representation in two ways: chronologically with an attention to archival materials through the antebellum era beginning with the specters that emerge with the Panic of and interpretively across the readings of a literary specter as a space of lack and potential, as exchange, as transformation, and as the presence of absence.
As a failed body and, therefore, a flawed embodiment of economic existence, the literary specter proves a powerful representation of antebellum social and financial uncertainties. Michael Todd Hendricks , Drawing from the history of adolescence and the context of midcentury female juvenile delinquency, I argue that studios and teen girl stars struggled for decades with publicity, censorship, and social expectations regarding the sexual license of teenage girls.
Until the late s, exploitation films and B movies exploited teen sex and pregnancy while mainstream Hollywood ignored those issues, struggling to promote teen girl stars by tightly controlling their private lives but depriving fan magazines of the gossip and scandals that normally fueled the machinery of stardom. This new image was a significant departure from the widespread belief that the sexually active teen girl was a fundamentally delinquent threat to the nuclear family, and offered a liberal counterpoint to more conservative teen girl prototypes like Hayley Mills, which continued to have cultural currency.
It explores the literary presence of the middle class managing daughter in the Victorian home. Collectively, the novels in this study articulate social anxieties about the unclear and unstable role of daughters in the family, the physically and emotionally challenging work they, and all women, do, and the struggle for daughters to find a place in a family hierarchy, which is often structured not by effort or affection, but by proscribed traditional roles, which do not easily adapt to managing daughters, even if they are the ones holding the family together.
The managing daughter is a problem not accounted for in any conventional domestic structure or ideology so there is no role, no clear set of responsibilities and no boundaries that could, and arguably should, define her obligations, offer her opportunities for empowerment, or set necessary limits on the broad cultural mandate she has to comfort and care others. The extremes she is often pushed to reveals the stresses and hidden conflicts for authority and autonomy inherent in domestic labor without the iconic angel in the house rhetoric that so often masks the difficulties of domestic life for women.
She gains no authority or stability no matter how loving or even how necessary she is to a family because there simply is no position in the parental family structure for her. The managing daughter thus reveals a deep crack in the structure of the traditional Victorian family by showing that it often cannot accommodate, protect, or validate a loving non-traditional family member because it values traditional hierarchies over emotion or effort.
Yet, in doing so, it also suggests that if it is position not passion that matters, then as long as a woman assumes the right position in the family then deep emotional connections to others are not necessary for her to care competently for others.
Virginia B. Engholm , The average birth rate per woman in was just over seven, but by , that rate had fallen to just under than three and a half. The question that this dissertation explores is what cultural narratives about reproduction and reproductive control emerge in the wake of this demographic shift.
How do women, and society, control birth? This dissertation, then, constructs a cultural narrative of the process of controlling birth. While the chapters of this work often focus on traditional sites of birth control—contraceptives, abortion, and eugenics—they are not limited to those forms, uncovering previously hidden narratives of reproduction control.
By focusing on a variety of cultural texts—advertisements, fictional novels, historical writings, medical texts, popular print, and film—this project aims to create a sense of how these cultural productions work together to construct narratives about sexuality, reproduction, and reproductive control.
Relying heavily on a historicizing of these issues, my project shows how these texts—both fictional and nonfictional—create a rich and valid site from which to explore the development of narratives of sexuality and reproductive practices, as well as how these narratives connect to larger cultural narratives of race, class, and nation. The interdisciplinary nature of this inquiry highlights the interrelationship between the literary productions of the nineteenth and twentieth century and American cultural history.
Amber M. Stamper , Most recently, these Christian evangelists have gone online. As a contribution to scholarship in religious rhetoric and media studies, this dissertation offers evangelistic websites as a case study into the ways persuasion is carried out on the Internet.
Through an analysis of digital texts—including several evangelical home pages, a chat room, discussion forums, and a virtual church—I investigate how conversion is encouraged via web design and virtual community as well as how the Internet medium impacts the theology and rhetorical strategies of web evangelists.
The project begins within the historical framework of the multiple financial crises that occurred in the late eighteenth century: seven crises took place between and alone, appearing seemingly out of nowhere and creating a climate of financial meltdown. But how did the awareness of economic turbulence filter into the creative consciousness?
Through an interdisciplinary focus on cultural studies and behavioral economics, the dissertation posits that in spite of their conventional, status quo affirming endings opportunists are punished, lovers are married , novels and plays written between and contemplated models of behavior that were newly opportunistic, echoing the reluctant realization that irrationality had become the norm rather than a rare aberration.
By analyzing concrete narrative strategies used by writers such as Frances Burney, Georgiana Cavendish, Hannah Cowley, and Thomas Holcroft, I demonstrate that late eighteenth-century fiction both articulates and elides the awareness of randomness and uncertainty in its depiction of plot, character, and narrative. George Micajah Phillips , Eliot, and others sought to better understand how identity was recognized, particularly visually. By exploring how painting, photography, colonial exhibitions, and cinema sought to manage visual representations of identity, these modernists found that recognition began by acknowledging the familiar but also went further to acknowledge what was strange and new as well.
This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense , but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete. Next, indicate the research methods that you used to answer your question. This part should be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense as it refers to completed actions. Next, summarize the main research results. This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense.
Depending on how long and complex your research is, you may not be able to include all results here. Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions. Finally, state the main conclusions of your research : what is your answer to the problem or question?
The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense. If there are important limitations to your research for example, related to your sample size or methods , you should mention them briefly in the abstract.
This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility and generalizability of your research. If your aim was to solve a practical problem, the conclusions might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.
If your paper will be published, you might have to add a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. These keywords should reference the most important elements of the research to help potential readers find your paper during their own literature searches. Be aware that some publication manuals, such as APA Style , have specific formatting requirements for these keywords. These strategies can help you get started. Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements.
If your research has a different structure for example, a humanities dissertation that builds an argument through thematic chapters , you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining. For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft sentences that summarize the central point or argument. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.
The abstract should tell a condensed version of the whole story, and it should only include information that can be found in the main text. Reread your abstract to make sure it gives a clear summary of your overall argument. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style.
You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases. A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point. Avoid unnecessary filler words, and avoid obscure jargon — the abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic. If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract —make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly.
Always stick to the word limit. If you have not been given any guidelines on the length of the abstract, write no more than one double-spaced page. The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents. I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives. I have briefly described my methodology. I have summarized the most important results. I have stated my main conclusions.
You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation. An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text such as a journal article or dissertation. It serves two main purposes:. Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around — words.
The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis or paper. Avoid citing sources in your abstract. There are two reasons for this:. There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist.
The abstract appears on its own page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation How to write an abstract.