Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national, and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO Some older house styles specify that front matter title page, abstract, table of content, etc.
The relevant international standard  and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, therefore, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page the recto of the title page.
Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout, type and color of paper, use of acid-free paper where a copy of the dissertation will become a permanent part of the library collection , paper size , order of components, and citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued.
However, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, and leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. The thesis committee or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a student's dissertation.
In the US, these committees usually consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis see Thesis defense. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with their primary adviser, usually after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, and may consist of members of the comps committee.
The committee members are doctors in their field whether a Ph. Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student. The role of the thesis supervisor is to assist and support a student in their studies, and to determine whether a thesis is ready for examination. In the Latin American docta , the academic dissertation can be referred to as different stages inside the academic program that the student is seeking to achieve into a recognized Argentine University , in all the cases the students must develop original contribution in the chosen fields by means of several paper work and essays that comprehend the body of the thesis.
According to a committee resolution, the dissertation can be approved or rejected by an academic committee consisting of the thesis director and at least one evaluator. All the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach.
At English-speaking Canadian universities , writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers , term papers or essays. A longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelor's degree is sometimes called a major paper. High-quality research papers presented as the empirical study of a "postgraduate" consecutive bachelor with Honours or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called thesis Honours Seminar Thesis.
Major papers presented as the final project for a master's degree are normally called thesis ; and major papers presenting the student's research towards a doctoral degree are called theses or dissertations. See also compilation thesis. Either work can be awarded a " mention d'honneur " excellence as a result of the decision by the examination committee , although these are rare.
A typical undergraduate paper or essay might be forty pages. Master's theses are approximately one hundred pages. PhD theses are usually over two hundred pages. This may vary greatly by discipline, program, college, or university.
However, normally the required minimum study period is primarily depending on the complexity or quality of research requirements. Theses Canada acquires and preserves a comprehensive collection of Canadian theses at Library and Archives Canada ' LAC through a partnership with Canadian universities who participate in the program.
At most university faculties in Croatia, a degree is obtained by defending a thesis after having passed all the classes specified in the degree programme. Most students with bachelor's degrees continue onto master's programmes which end with a master's thesis called diplomski rad literally "diploma work" or "graduate work". The term dissertation is used for a doctoral degree paper doktorska disertacija. In the Czech Republic, higher education is completed by passing all classes remaining to the educational compendium for given degree and defending a thesis.
The minimum page length is generally and not formally pages or about , characters , but is usually several times longer except for technical theses and for "exact sciences" such as physics and maths. The word dissertation in French is reserved for shorter 1,—2, words , more generic academic treatises. In Germany, an academic thesis is called Abschlussarbeit or, more specifically, the basic name of the degree complemented by -arbeit rough translation: -work ; e.
For bachelor's and master's degrees, the name can alternatively be complemented by -thesis instead e. Length is often given in page count and depends upon departments, faculties, and fields of study. A bachelor's thesis is often 40—60 pages long, a diploma thesis and a master's thesis usually 60— The required submission for a doctorate is called a Dissertation or Doktorarbeit.
The submission for a Habilitation , which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called Habilitationsschrift , not Habilitationsarbeit. PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study. A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from summa cum laude best to rite duly.
A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark non-rite , non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone. Bachelor's and master's theses receive numerical grades from 1. In India the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva in short. Involved in the viva are two examiners, one guide student guide and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university.
Engineering and Designing qualifications such as BTech, B. Des, MTech, M. Des also involves submission of dissertation. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses.
The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi. In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree.
Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment.
If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system. In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree.
Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too.
The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university. A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement.
The defense of the research work is done publicly. However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis. This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class.
This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic. In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations though this varies across universities , whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once.
In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead. The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.
The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna or dysertacja habilitacyjna. Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate.
For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University.
In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences. To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly.
The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ]. At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies.
The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis. The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate.
In Sweden, there are different types of theses. The undergraduate theses are called uppsats "essay" , sometimes examensarbete , especially at technical programmes. After that there are two types of post graduate theses: licentiate thesis licentiatuppsats and PhD dissertation doktorsavhandling. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of the size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete.
The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesis ; in the latter case, the introductory chapters are called the kappa literally "coat". Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors.
In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision. In some U. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement.
Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.
Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations.
They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.
Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation.
The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship.
Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries.
This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis defense or dissertation defense , which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.
The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examination committee in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received their degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.
At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically pass a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense.
Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student to proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.
It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks. At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.
Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. No matter how long it has been since you started graduate school, how much you have struggled or how pessimistic you are about making it to the finish line, we are committed to helping you. Your dissertation or thesis experience can be a time in your life when you learn to love and appreciate challenges for the growth in competence they foster, the life experiences they grant, and the wisdom they impart.
We seek to foster learning and growth among all of our clients. We have developed a sound coaching model specifically designed to help graduate students succeed and develop skills they can use in their future careers. Read more information about this service on our Coaching page. Dissertation consulting is a service we designed to offer technical assistance to graduate students as they carry out their thesis or doctoral research.
We can help you develop a sound study, support you to competently execute the study, and successfully complete and defend the final product. Our dissertation consultants are experts in developing a dissertation or thesis topic, developing literature reviews, research design, methodology, developmental editing, statistical analysis, qualitative analysis and writing up research findings. As consultants we provide clear, direct guidance and mentoring that will help you succeed while you remain the author of your own work.
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Assume you have a technically literate readership familiar with or able to find common references. Do not reference popular literature or WWW sites if you can help it this is a matter of style more than anything else -- you want to reference articles in refereed conferences and journals, if possible, or in other theses. Also in the introduction, you want to survey any related work that attempted something similar to your own, or that has a significant supporting role in your research.
This should refer only to published references. You cite the work in the references, not the researchers themselves. Every factual statement you make must have a specific citation tied to it in this chapter, or else it must be common knowledge don't rely on this too much.
Chapter II. Abstract Model. Your results are to be of lasting value. Thus, the model you develop and write about and indeed, that you defend should be one that has lasting value. It should be generic in nature, and should capture all the details necessary to overlay the model on likely environments.
You should discuss the problems, parameters, requirements, necessary and sufficient conditions, and other factors here. Consider that 20 years ago ca the common platform was a Vax computer running VMS or a PDP running Unix version 6, yet well-crafted theses of the time are still valuable today.
Will your dissertation be valuable 20 years from now ca , or have you referred to technologies that will be of only historical interest? This model is tough to construct, but is really the heart of the scientific part of your work. This is the lasting part of the contribution, and this is what someone might cite 50 years from now when we are all using MS Linux XXXXP on computers embedded in our wrists with subspace network links! There are basically three proof techniques that I have seen used in a computing dissertation, depending on the thesis topic.
The first is analytic, where one takes the model or formulae and shows, using formal manipulations, that the model is sound and complete. A second proof method is stochastic, using some form of statistical methods and measurements to show that something is true in the anticipated cases. Using the third method, you need to show that your thesis is true by building something according to your model and showing that it behaves as you claim it will. This involves clearly showing how your implementation model matches the conditions of your abstract model, describing all the variables and why you set them as you do, accounting for confounding factors, and showing the results.
You must be careful to not expend too much effort describing how standard protocols and hardware work use citations to the literature, instead. You must clearly express the mapping of model to experiment, and the definition of parameters used and measured. Chapter V. Additional results. This may be folded into Chapter III in some theses, or it may be multiple chapters in a thesis with many parts as in a theory-based thesis. This may be where you discuss the effects of technology change on your results.
This is also a place where you may wish to point out significant results that you obtained while seeking to prove your central thesis, but which are not themselves supportive of the thesis. Often, such additional results are published in a separate paper. Chapter VI. Conclusions and Future work. This is where you discuss what you found from your work, incidental ideas and results that were not central to your thesis but of value nonetheless, if you did not have them in Chapter V and other results.
This chapter should summarize all the important results of the dissertation note that this is the only chapter many people will ever read, so it should convey all the important results. This is also where you should outline some possible future work that can be done in the area. What are some open problems? What are some new problems? What are some significant variations open to future inquiry? Appendices usually are present to hold mundane details that are not published elsewhere, but which are critical to the development of your dissertation.
This includes tables of measurement results, configuration details of experimental testbeds, limited source code listings of critical routines or algorithms, etc. The Dissertation is a novel by R. Koster , part of the Tinieblas trilogy. The book is a mock-PhD thesis, written by the son of the dictator of Tinieblas, recounting his father's rise and fall in a satire of academic prose, while the footnotes narrate the sad life of the doctoral candidate, in the manner of Vladimir Nabokov 's Pale Fire.
The Dissertation makes an appearance in the Stephen King novel Joyland where it is being read by the character Annie Ross. This article about a s novel is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. See guidelines for writing about novels. Further suggestions might be found on the article's talk page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the academic document, see dissertation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
I have found during such a time you can learn a lot about yourself and begin to truly appreciate the dissertation process. For instance, I learned that I worked best when I juggled multiple research projects discussed in more detail in item three, below. In addition, because I had a supportive group of peers going through the dissertation process with me, I learned that having a social network of scholars was crucial -- not only to ensuring that I finished my dissertation writing but also that I remained patient during the wait time.
Develop a second writing project to work on while writing your dissertation especially if you seek a faculty position. It can be easy for graduate students to become consumed by the dissertation. During those times when you hit a roadblock, having a second project to work on can give you well-needed distance and perspective. You can remain productive and develop your research agenda, as well as gain new insights if your second project involves an extension of your dissertation research.
Consequently, while writing my dissertation, I worked on multiple projects to develop a strong CV. Become confident in imperfection as a writer. Gaining this understanding was a major turning point in my development as a scholar. When I first began to conceptualize my dissertation, I was a little unsure of my ability to take on such a daunting task.
As a result, I sometimes found it hard to write sentences because I was looking for the perfect one. But I have learned that I cannot seek perfection in the first draft. Become a creature of habit and write every day. The authors recommend that, to be productive as a writer, you should write at least 30 minutes each day. I decided to try writing 15 minutes a day instead. While I found that to be beneficial, I always left each writing session having just gotten into a writing groove.
In the end, 30 minutes became enough time to write without feeling as if I were sitting at the computer for a long time. To implement this plan, you should first determine your ideal thinking and writing time. Once you understand when you work best, schedule your minute session each day at the same time.
You will be surprised at how much you can accomplish by the end of the week. While I have provided five strategies for surviving and thriving while developing your dissertation, I understand that there are certainly more suggestions for ensuring success. I hope that, using the comment feature below and engaging in dialogue via the comment section or Twitter ramongoings and Facebook hashtag MyDocStory , we can share strategies to help doctoral students through the dissertation process.
Please read this section carefully and contact the Office of Doctoral Studies if you have any questions. Faculty policy leaves the choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of his or her committee. Generally, candidates are urged to learn and use the manual most often required for scholarly writing by journals within their disciplines.
Typically, the following style manuals are used by NYU Steinhardt students:. Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins. Sufficient darkness is also necessary for any supporting materials, such as tables, figures, drawings, pictures, etc. Your dissertation will be published by ProQuest UMI which requires clear, high-contrast characters and images.
The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred. A smaller or condensed typeface can be used for tables that otherwise might not fit across a page within the correct margins, however, mixing typefaces is otherwise not recommended.
Underlining or italics may be used for statistical symbols, book titles, or definitions but use either one or the other consistently throughout your manuscript, including tables. Headings should be underlined when appropriate and not italicized. Bold type should not be used in the manuscript. Avoid leaving more than two inches of white space without type. This applies to tables and figures as well as to text.
A table or figure should be inserted in the text as soon after it is first referred to where it will fit in its entirety on one page. Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the same for figures. Continue your text if you can fit at least four lines after it. You may have more than one table on a page and you may have a table, discussion, and a table.
The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option. The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them.
Lower case roman numerals iii, iv, v, vi, etc. Beginning with page 1 of Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and are continuous through the last page including all appendices. Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an inch from the top or bottom edge of the paper centered between the margins.
Your dissertation will be automatically copyrighted by UMI when it is published. You should include a copyright page with your name and copyright date in the middle of the page, centered left to right between the margins and top to bottom. Please note that the copyright date is the year of your degree conferral. Follow this format:. The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the text the title page is understood to be page i , but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page.
Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible. Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2. Including lower level headings is optional. See sample Table of Contents in the next section. Note that the indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the level of the heading.
The following illustrates this:. You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation. See the sample lists in the next section. Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for lists of tables and figures. Chapter headings and titles appear centered between the margins as follows, beginning two inches from the top of the page:. Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below.
Leave three blank lines i. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only one blank line a double space between the two. Leave one blank line a double space after each heading. Capitalize the first letter of each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
The following is one way in which to order headings and to type them. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it. The Table of Contents will contain all Level 1 and Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the text.
It is not necessary to include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals with no period , e. All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers. Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e.
Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1 in the text and 1. If items in a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers.
Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 or, if you prefer, 12 should be spelled out when they appear within the text. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font.
Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding. You may also use a condensed typeface. For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use 10 underscore characters, ending with a period if the author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of a series of new authors, as shown below.
Single space the entry; double space between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the other.
Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on one page and the rest of the citation on the next page. The entry should be cited in its entirety on one page or the other. The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context. If you are attributing an idea that you paraphrased to someone, use the name and date according to APA style such as Jones, , or as shown in the first sentence below.
If you are using a direct quotation, use the same format, but you must include the page number where you found it, as shown in the second sentence below. Also, specific information or ideas need a page number even if paraphrased. For example, the following brief passage refers to the same publication by a hypothetical author:. Review the whole manuscript to be sure that every work referred to in the manuscript is cited in the text or footnotes and included in the bibliography.
Four or more lines of a quotation should be set off from the main text with a double space, typed single spaced with no quotation marks, and the entire block indented one-half inch. Quotations within these block or indented quotations may use double quotations. The first line of the quotation is not indented; however, the first lines of new paragraphs within the quotation should begin with an additional indent of one-half inch.
Each appendix should have the proper designation at the top of the first page. A title page does not need to be inserted before each one. Use the following format, centered between the left and right margins, beginning two inches from the top of the page:.
If you have material that, because of its format, needs to have a title page because the title doesn't fit on the same page as the material , you need to consistently use title pages for all appendices. Avoid it if you can. Again, all material in an appendix must fit within the overall page margins. It is necessary to obtain letters of permission for the reproduction of any copyrighted material which exceeds the Federal law pertaining to "Fair Use.
Copies of the letters do not need to be included in the dissertation. The abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the dissertation. Begin typing the abstract two inches from the top of a blank page with no heading. The abstract should be typed double-spaced with the same typeface and margins as the dissertation. The length of the abstract should be limited to words. The abstract title page is identical to the dissertation title page with one exception: the abstract title page has the words An Abstract of directly above the title see Sample Title Page in the next section.
Each abstract is stapled in the upper left corner and kept separate from the dissertation. The chairperson of the dissertation committee should sign one copy of the abstract title page. The following section includes sample dissertation pages which should be followed carefully.
Refer to the preceding section for more detailed information on format requirements. Students should follow the instructions on these sample pages rather than using a dissertation from the library or elsewhere as a guide. Format requirements differ from year to year and from school to school.
Information on Doctoral Studies orientation, upcoming events, and important filing deadlines. Breadcrumb Home Proposal and Dissertation Policies and Guidelines. The Role of the Committee The development of the proposal and the dissertation is an effort that requires a great deal of collaboration involving the candidate and his or her dissertation committee. The Dissertation Proposal Review The procedures for reviewing dissertation proposals vary among the different departments; however, the following School policies apply to all departments and programs: The committee chairperson and both committee members must sign the Dissertation Proposal Cover Sheet indicating their approval of the proposal for review by the panel.
The dissertation committee must meet as a group at least once prior to the filing of the proposal for review. Both the candidate and the dissertation committee chairperson are required to attend the review. Attendance by a minimum of two reviewers external to the dissertation committee is required.
Attendance by the committee members is optional. The recommendations of the proposal review panel are advisory. The proposal review panel will recommend that you proceed in one of the following ways: If the panel vote results in a "pass," the panel will recommend that you carry out the research and dissertation writing as proposed there may be minor revisions suggested that are not officially noted.
If the panel vote results in a "deferred pass" or "pass with conditions," the panel will recommend that you address the concerns of the panel in writing with copies to the committee chairperson and members and to the Office of Doctoral Studies. In some cases the proposal review panel or the dissertation committee may recommend that you submit a revised proposal reflecting the revisions suggested by the panel.
Two copies of the revised proposal must also be submitted to the Office of Doctoral Studies. If the panel does not approve the proposal, you will be asked to rewrite the proposal and submit it for a second proposal review. Editors and Consultants You are the sole author of your dissertation and are responsible for understanding, discussing, and defending all aspects of your work, including the methodologies employed. Dissertation Deadline Information See detailed deadline information for the current academic year.
Instructions for Filing for Orals In order to schedule your final oral examination, you must submit simultaneously to the Office of Doctoral Studies the following forms and materials in accordance with the dissertation filing deadlines noted above: In order to schedule your final oral examination, you must submit the following to the Office of Doctoral Studies in accordance with the filing deadlines on our website.
The Final Oral Examination The final oral examination is a two-hour examination scheduled according to the guidelines outlined above. The following policies pertain to the voting procedures for the final oral examination. These outcomes pass, fail, or deferred pass with conditions result according to the following rules: Rules Which Determines a Pass Outcome If the candidate has an official three-member dissertation committee, then the candidate must secure at least four pass votes out of five to pass.
Procedures to Follow in the Event of a Pass Outcome The Final Oral Examination Report obtained by the dissertation committee chairperson from the Office of Doctoral Studies is completed and returned to the Office of Doctoral Studies no later than 24 hours after the final oral examination has been completed.
Rule Which Determines a Fail Outcome If there are two or more fail votes, a fail outcome must be recorded. Procedures to Follow in the Event of a Fail Outcome The Final Oral Examination Report is completed and returned to the Office of Doctoral Studies no later than 24 hours after the final oral examination has been completed. Rule Which Determines a Deferred Pass Outcome Any combination of votes which does not result in a pass or fail as specified above must result in a deferred pass with conditions.
Voting in the Event of the Absence of a Commission Member If any member of the five-member final oral commission is absent, the dissertation committee chairperson must secure permission from the Vice Dean for Academic Affairs to proceed with the final oral examination. If a dissertation committee member is absent, the following rules apply: If there are three or more pass votes, the outcome is recorded as a pass.
If there are two or more fail votes, the outcome is recorded as a fail. Any combination of votes which does not result in a pass or fail must result in a deferred pass with conditions. If an outside reader is absent, the following rules apply: In order for a pass outcome to be recorded, a unanimous pass vote is required.
If there are one or more fail votes, the outcome is recorded as a fail. Final Dissertation Approval After the final oral examination, you are required to submit an additional copy of the dissertation to be reviewed by the Office of Doctoral Studies for format. Culminating Project The culminating project should be an inquiry-based project of value for informing practice and contributing to the advancement of knowledge.
The review panel will recommend that you proceed in one of the following ways: If the panel vote results in a "pass," the panel will recommend that you carry out the project as proposed there may be minor revisions suggested that are not officially noted. In some cases the review panel or the doctoral committee may recommend that you submit a revised prospectus or culminating project proposal reflecting the revisions suggested by the panel.
A copy of the revised proposal must also be submitted to the Office of Doctoral Studies. If the panel does not approve, you will be asked to rewrite the prospectus or culminating project proposal and submit it for a second review. Instructions for Filing for Orals In order to schedule your final oral examination, you must submit the following to the Office of Doctoral Studies in accordance with the filing deadlines on our website. Final Culminating Project Approval After the final oral examination, the document will be reviewed by Office of Doctoral Studies for format.
Dissertation Formatting Guidelines This section describes the dissertation format that all Steinhardt doctoral candidates are required to follow. Choice of Style Manual Faculty policy leaves the choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of his or her committee. Print and Copy Quality Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins. Typefaces The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred.
Do not justify the right margin of your text; keep it left aligned like the text shown here. Margins To assure proper binding and for ease of reading, the following margins are required: Left margin : one and one-half inches for all pages. Right margin : one and one-half inches for all pages , with no intrusion of letters or anything else into the right margin. Top margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages except the first page of the Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, each chapter, Bibliography, and Appendices which should begin two inches from the top edge of the page.
Bottom margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages. Page numbers for all pages preceding page 1 of Chapter I lower case roman numerals for Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, etc. Page numbers from page 1 of Chapter I through the last page of the last appendix should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the top or bottom, centered between the left and right margins.
See the next section for sample dissertation pages. White Space Avoid leaving more than two inches of white space without type. Line Spacing Double space the entire manuscript with these exceptions which should be single-spaced : chapter titles, appendix titles, headings, and subheadings of more than one line block quotations column headings and lines that run on in tables bibliography or references entries — double space between entries footnotes figure captions explanatory material for figures, tables, and illustrations appendices — the spacing will vary depending on the source and content.
Pagination The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them. Order of Sections The material of your manuscript should be ordered as follows: title page copyright page acknowledgments table of contents list s of tables, figures, charts, graphs, musical examples, illustrations, etc.
You are required to follow that format exactly. Follow this format: The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the text the title page is understood to be page i , but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. The following illustrates this: You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation.