In other contexts, however, the conclusion refers to the final chapter, where you wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you found. This type of conclusion often also includes recommendations for future research or practice. What have you added to what was already known? You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography.
Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list. To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use the Scribbr Citation Generator. Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures can be added as appendices.
Making sure all the sections are in the right place is only the first step to a well-written dissertation. Leave plenty of time for editing and proofreading. Grammar mistakes and sloppy formatting errors can drag down the quality of your hard work. You should plan to write and revise several drafts of your thesis or dissertation before focusing on language mistakes , typos and inconsistencies.
My title page includes all information required by my university. I have included acknowledgements thanking those who helped me. My abstract provides a concise summary of the dissertation, giving the reader a clear idea of my key findings or arguments. I have created a table of contents to help the reader navigate my dissertation. The table of contents includes all chapter titles, but excludes the title page, acknowledgements, and abstract. My introduction leads into my topic in an engaging way and shows the relevance of my research.
My introduction clearly defines the focus of my research, stating my research questions and objectives. I have reviewed the most important literature to show the current state of knowledge on my topic. My literature review does not just summarize but engages critically with sources, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. My literature review shows how my dissertation addresses a gap or contributes something new to existing research.
I have clearly outlined the theoretical framework of my research, explaining the theories and models that support my approach. I have thoroughly described my methodology , explaining how I collected and analyzed data. I have concisely and objectively reported all relevant results. I have evaluated and interpreted the meaning of the results in my discussion. I have clearly stated the answer to my main research question in the conclusion.
I have clearly explained the implications of my conclusion, emphasizing what new insight my research has contributed. If relevant, I have included appendices with supplemental information. I have included an in-text citation every time I use words, ideas, or information from a source. I have consistently followed the rules of my chosen citation style.
The end is in sight—your dissertation is nearly ready to submit! Make sure it's perfectly polished with the help of a Scribbr editor. Download and adapt these slides to teach your students about structuring a dissertation. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free!
APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation. How to structure a dissertation A dissertation or thesis is a long piece of academic writing based on original research. My literature review discusses patterns, themes, and debates in the literature. I have acknowledged any important limitations of the results.
I have provided relevant recommendations for further research or practice. I have listed every source in a reference list at the end of my dissertation. I have followed all formatting guidelines provided by my university. Learn more about dissertation editing services Return to checklist. Is this article helpful? Your paper without awkward language mistakes? Scribbr's professional editors can help!
Learn more Trustpilot score of 4. Des also involves submission of dissertation. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi.
In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment.
If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system. In Italy there are normally three types of thesis.
Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees.
However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too.
The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university.
A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly. However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis.
This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic.
In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations though this varies across universities , whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once.
In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead. The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.
The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna or dysertacja habilitacyjna. Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public.
The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University.
In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences. To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ].
At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies. The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis.
The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. In Sweden, there are different types of theses.
The undergraduate theses are called uppsats "essay" , sometimes examensarbete , especially at technical programmes. After that there are two types of post graduate theses: licentiate thesis licentiatuppsats and PhD dissertation doktorsavhandling. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of the size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete.
The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesis ; in the latter case, the introductory chapters are called the kappa literally "coat". Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable.
A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision.
In some U. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement. Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.
Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations.
They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.
Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation.
The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship. Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea.
The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries. This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury.
In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis defense or dissertation defense , which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.
The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examination committee in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received their degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree. At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons.
First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically pass a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense. Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation.
Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student to proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.
It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks. At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.
Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales , have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions. In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners.
Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other s will usually be from other universities and often from overseas. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution.
Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university.
For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department. Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted.
In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom , Magister , master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputation , also called Verteidigung "defense" , is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis.
In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung. In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties.
Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PhD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners. The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries.
The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement. An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university.
The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates. In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense.
In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester.
The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees. In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates.
The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus their primary supervisor, an external examiner someone not otherwise connected to the university , and a chair person. Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter.
In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of their research, followed by one to two hours of questions.
At some U. A student in Russia or Ukraine has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis.
A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute. The former Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA lasted two years and candidates were required to complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied.
From on, these courses were replaced by academic Master's programmes that include specific training on epistemology, and scientific methodology. After its completion, students are able to enroll in a specific PhD programme programa de doctorado and begin a dissertation on a set topic for a maximum time of three years full-time and five years part-time.
All students must have a full professor as an academic advisor director de tesis and a tutor, who is usually the same person. A dissertation tesis doctoral , with an average of pages, is the main requisite along with typically one previously published journal article. Once candidates have published their written dissertations, they will be evaluated by two external academics evaluadores externos and subsequently it is usually exhibited publicly for fifteen natural days.
After its approval, candidates must defend publicly their research before a three-member committee tribunal with at least one visiting academic: chair, secretary and member presidente , secretario y vocal. A typical public Thesis Defence defensa lasts 45 minutes and all attendants holding a doctoral degree are eligible to ask questions.
In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva for short. A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university.
Instead, you can cover almost everything by saying: "The terminology used in this work matches the definitions given in [citation, citation] unless noted otherwise. The progress of science is that we learn and use the work of others with appropriate credit. Assume you have a technically literate readership familiar with or able to find common references. Do not reference popular literature or WWW sites if you can help it this is a matter of style more than anything else -- you want to reference articles in refereed conferences and journals, if possible, or in other theses.
Also in the introduction, you want to survey any related work that attempted something similar to your own, or that has a significant supporting role in your research. This should refer only to published references. You cite the work in the references, not the researchers themselves. Every factual statement you make must have a specific citation tied to it in this chapter, or else it must be common knowledge don't rely on this too much.
Chapter II. Abstract Model. Your results are to be of lasting value. Thus, the model you develop and write about and indeed, that you defend should be one that has lasting value. It should be generic in nature, and should capture all the details necessary to overlay the model on likely environments. You should discuss the problems, parameters, requirements, necessary and sufficient conditions, and other factors here.
Consider that 20 years ago ca the common platform was a Vax computer running VMS or a PDP running Unix version 6, yet well-crafted theses of the time are still valuable today. Will your dissertation be valuable 20 years from now ca , or have you referred to technologies that will be of only historical interest? This model is tough to construct, but is really the heart of the scientific part of your work.
This is the lasting part of the contribution, and this is what someone might cite 50 years from now when we are all using MS Linux XXXXP on computers embedded in our wrists with subspace network links! There are basically three proof techniques that I have seen used in a computing dissertation, depending on the thesis topic. The first is analytic, where one takes the model or formulae and shows, using formal manipulations, that the model is sound and complete.
A second proof method is stochastic, using some form of statistical methods and measurements to show that something is true in the anticipated cases. Using the third method, you need to show that your thesis is true by building something according to your model and showing that it behaves as you claim it will. This involves clearly showing how your implementation model matches the conditions of your abstract model, describing all the variables and why you set them as you do, accounting for confounding factors, and showing the results.
You must be careful to not expend too much effort describing how standard protocols and hardware work use citations to the literature, instead. You must clearly express the mapping of model to experiment, and the definition of parameters used and measured. Chapter V. Additional results. This may be folded into Chapter III in some theses, or it may be multiple chapters in a thesis with many parts as in a theory-based thesis. This may be where you discuss the effects of technology change on your results.
This is also a place where you may wish to point out significant results that you obtained while seeking to prove your central thesis, but which are not themselves supportive of the thesis. Often, such additional results are published in a separate paper.
Chapter VI. Conclusions and Future work. This is where you discuss what you found from your work, incidental ideas and results that were not central to your thesis but of value nonetheless, if you did not have them in Chapter V and other results. This chapter should summarize all the important results of the dissertation note that this is the only chapter many people will ever read, so it should convey all the important results. This is also where you should outline some possible future work that can be done in the area.
What are some open problems? What are some new problems? What are some significant variations open to future inquiry? Using phenomenology, this study specifically explored how adversity has led Black women to leadership serving in higher education senior leadership. Past literature shows that Black women leaders undergo extreme challenges, including limited role models, the concrete ceiling, double discrimination, and the intersectionality of racism and sexism, as well as tokenism.
Yet Black women are resilient and strong. The results of this study reveal that Black women use adversity as fuel to overcome crucible experiences, thus helping them develop the necessary skills to prepare them for leadership. Their strength through adversity is driven by resilience. Resilience has manifested itself in many ways for the participants of this study, varying from motivation factors such as family and relationships, mentors, community support, self-care and nurturing, friendships and sisterhoods, as well as the support of cultural identity and diversity.
Full Text. Followership is a nascent yet emerging subject. An increasing number of scholars are recognizing the critical role of followers and that leadership cannot exist without followership. Most followership studies take place in the United States, which constrains knowledge growth on followership from a global perspective.
Understanding regarding ideal followership has largely been limited to reflect Western values. One of the most popular propositions regarding ideal followership is the courageous followership concept developed by Ira Chaleff. This study contains an examination of whether the belief that courageous followership represents ideal followership is shared between American and Japanese followers as the countries offer an interesting contrast in cultural values and can offer a non-Western perspective.
Through a quasi-experimental mixed factor repeated measure design, analysis of variance with covariates revealed how followers from each country perceive courageous followership behaviors as ideal and how often these followers practice such behaviors. The results showed that American participants favored courageous followership as ideal form of followership more so compared to Japanese participants.
American participants also reported higher level of courageous followership behaviors in practice compared to Japanese participants—except for behaviors associated with the courage to take moral action. Transformational leadership theory and social dominance theory were used as the theoretical bases to guide the study. The study raises awareness about aspects of African women leaders through the eyes of the male, millennial leaders in a historically male-dominated society.
Furthermore, the study provides data to enhance the understanding of local, regional, and global leaders who work to liberate female leaders through organizational development and gender equality, globally. Perceptions of male leaders were explored to find out what can be done to change perceptions that may limit the possibilities for women to gain access to leadership roles in Mauritanian organizations.
The purpose of the current phenomenological study was to explore the global followership phenomenon within a global organizational context, specifically within global technology organizations to understand the lived experiences of global followers and how they develop their global followership behaviors. The present study used three overarching research questions to explore lived experiences of global followers: 1 How do global followers at global technology organizations describe their lived experiences that help them develop global followership behaviors?
The interview questions scrutinized the experiences of global followers, the influence of global organizational context, and the influence of culture on their behaviors. The theoretical framework guided the study was followership theory and the concept of global followership. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling strategies were used to recruit participants. After selecting individuals who meet the initial criteria, the researcher emailed screening questions to selected individuals and collected self-reported information.
Data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and the interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using NVivo 12 qualitative analysis software. Data analysis led to the development of four core themes that explained the experiences of global followers and their development of effective global followership behaviors: 1 following effectively, 2 following globally, 3 developing continuously, and 4 managing challenges.
The findings of the present study may help future global followers that they could learn the developmental pathways presented by the participants and try to train to be effective global followers and contribute to co-construction of global leadership processes in their organizations. Global leaders could also learn from findings of this study and try to foster global followers that would help them to enhance global leadership outcomes.
Global organizations could use the findings of the present study to develop specific global followership development activities or trainings in order to develop effective global followers and enhance global leadership outcomes in their organizations. This study sought to explore the underlying perceptions, internal mechanisms, and external forces that may influence the ethical decision-making process of middle managers in a multinational organization.
This study contributes to the field of global leadership studies by providing an understanding of how global managers perceive an ethical issue, the ways in which they construct their own ethical reality, and how they explain the complexity of their ethical reasoning.
In addition, this study shows the value in developing an ethics training program for multinational organizations in order to develop better cross-cultural understanding. The purpose of this research is to use transcendental phenomenology to explore the lived experiences and events of executives, and how improvisation is experienced when decisions are made in states of complexity within a consulting firm.
The central research topic of this doctoral study focuses on executives in moments of complexity. The stated phenomenological method was engaged to explore the lived experiences of management and technology consulting firm executives on how they experience improvisation when making decisions in states of complexity. To guide this study, a theoretical framework consisting of complexity leadership theory, human elements of decisions, and improvisation was developed.
Findings from this study highlighted five core themes that emerged from the phenomenon: 1 leading through complexity, 2 using improvisation, 3 leading with no data, 4 leading with only data, and 5 mixing humans and data. For academics and practitioners, the data gathered from this research creates an essence of the experience of how improvisation is experienced in complexity by executives in a consulting firm.
The author hopes that this research in some way, will assist current and future executives to better understand the value of improvisation and how it can be applied successfully to lead in the complexities of the global business landscape. Organizations are undergoing unprecedented change, driven mainly by cost effectiveness and globalization. These changes leave organizations seeking a new type of leader, one who can manage a global workforce, navigate the impact of globalization, and foster employee organizational commitment.
Through the grounding of transformational leadership theory, the present study examines the partial mediating relationship of cultural intelligence on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment in an intercultural context.
Using a sample of full-time professionals who had a geographically dispersed intercultural relationship with their manager provides evidence that cultural intelligence partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee normative commitment. Additionally, this study evidenced that cultural intelligence does not partially mediate the relationships between transformational leadership style and affective or continuance commitment.
Theoretical and practical implications of this study clarify the interactions between cultural intelligence, transformational leadership, and organization commitment addressing a growing concern surrounding how intercultural leaders effectively manage complexity emanating from geographic dispersion, multiculturalism, and organizational cultural diversity; furthering the competencies of effective global leaders.
For workers to be globally competent, it is essential that they gain the necessary skills while completing their college education. To gain these competencies, institutions of higher education need to produce graduates with high intercultural competence. Impact of intercultural competence has to be acquired through specific formal and informal experience for students to have the greatest gains during their college experience.
These experiences actually begin before college and continue during their time in college. While literature has long stated that study abroad positively impacts intercultural competence, that alone may not be the best or only way to positively impact intercultural competence. To assess this impact of intercultural competence, students were asked to answer a demographic survey capturing the data on precollege characteristics and the college experience, as well as a survey instrument assessing intercultural competence.
The purpose of this global leadership study was to investigate the impact community college business curriculum internationalization has on the key components of the Ohio State Share of Instruction SSI funding formula. This analysis should assist institutional decision-makers in determining whether or not to incorporate such initiatives at their schools as many accrediting bodies are placing greater emphasis on student success and numerous states are tying public funding to completion rates.
Starting in Fiscal Year , the state of Ohio began implementing a new performance-based formula that allocates funding to universities and colleges based on student success instead of enrollment. As community colleges across the state work to adjust to the new formula, many are considering novel methods to expand their resource base through curriculum internationalization.
This study sought to determine the existence and degree of a quantitative relationship between business curriculum internationalization and student course completions, program and certificate completions, and success points within the Ohio SSI funding model.
Ultimately, the results of this inquiry indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the variables, primarily due to a lack of distinctive differences between the various Ohio community colleges in terms of their degrees of business curriculum internationalization. Progress has been made with women gaining more employment opportunity through the years in higher education. The progress has been seen in the lower positions; but the higher a woman climbs in four-year higher education institutions, the fewer positions she will find open to her gender.
Notably, gender inequity still exists in higher education leadership and especially in the top leadership positions in this sector. Until , the accepted remedy for this gender equity issue was to create a pipeline for more women to be qualified and ready to flow into the openings of the chief executive officer CEO position of four-year higher education institutions as they became available American Council of Education, With that declaration, the American Council of Education stated that there was a need for more research on pathways women can take to successfully reach the top CEO positions in higher education The purpose of this study was to seek to understand the phenomenon of how women have overcome barriers and secured the presidency in colleges and universities ACE, The goal of this phenomenological study was to determine the pathway that these women CEOs took and to answer the call for more research on the pathways of how more women can obtain the position of CEO.
It comes at a time when there is possibly the greatest climate that is conducive for women to achieve positions that have seldom been open to them in past history. The study was guided by research by Susan Madsen on the lived experiences of women university CEOs that is now considered the seminal work in the arena of higher education leadership and gender inequity.
Global leadership research arose out of a need for organizations to develop individuals who can successfully manage people, markets and strategies globally Mendenhall, et al. As the field is relatively new, there is gap in global leadership literature in understanding the antecedents of success of global leaders, and specifically bicultural global female leaders, in multi-cultural organizational environments.
In addition, views from a power dynamic of critical theory has not been fully explored. As a result of this gap in the literature, this dissertation study explored the intersectionality of success, gender and biculturalism to understand, through the voice and lived experiences of bicultural female leaders, how they assign meaning to the attainment of organizational success in global healthcare leadership positions in order to encourage organizational change.
Utilizing the phenomenological van Kaam 8-step method of data analysis Moustakas, , this study identified five themes related to how global leadership competencies, the meaning of success, and organizational influencers impact bicultural female global leader success. The five themes identified include a successful global leadership organizational competencies b meaning of success c intersection of gender and biculturalism on organizational success d organizational facilitators of success for bicultural global female leaders and e organizational inhibitors of success that require change.
This study added unique contributions in understanding a the shared meaning of success for bicultural global female leaders across various cultural groups as told through their voice, b how gender and biculturalism intersect to inform their experience as global leaders, specifically in empowering them to overcome historical biases that exist in organizations, and c actions organizations can do to help more bicultural women become global leaders.
The topic of workplace longevity includes a vast area of scholarly writing relating to the themes of organizational success, job satisfaction, work commitment, effective managerial leadership, employee engagement, workforce-retention strategies, and cultural influences on work habits. This theory explored the hygiene factors and motivator factors that cause job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction.
Seven themes emerged from this qualitative transcendental phenomenological research study: a millennials, b training and development, c mentality shift, d corporate culture, e workplace longevity, f change and adaptability, and g communication. The research study was promulgated upon a global platform and thus includes a discussion of global implications and a new definition of global leadership.
Global leaders in the present work climate are charged with managing diverse populations of employees from assorted cultures, with a mixture of mind-sets, and with a comprehensive collection of ideals, beliefs, values, and principles. This research explored global leadership through the lens of innovation and a team-oriented perspective. The main purpose of the study was to determine if there was a correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders at Ivy Tech Community College.
The study population included leaders in supervisor roles from two regions within Ivy Tech Community College. The findings of the study indicate there was no significant correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders. This emotional intelligence is especially true in the growing population of academically underprepared students. Through analysis of correlations between emotional intelligence and academic success factors — semester and cumulative GPAs, persistence data, as well as demographic variables, this study closes the gap in the literature focused on this specific student population and contributes to the field of global leadership in practice within higher education.
This dissertation argues that emotional intelligence is a critical leadership trait, skill and practice regardless of capacity or field. Likewise, the study persists that emotional intelligence is a skill necessary for academically underprepared students to develop early on in their educational careers and it is an aspect directly correlated to the success of global leaders inside and outside of the university setting.
Followership is an emergent field of study dedicated to the contributions of followers to the processes and outcomes of leadership. The discipline privileges followers at the center of theory development and acknowledges their central role as causal agents.
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