dissertation discussion section

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April 27, Staff Writers. With all the things you have going on as a student, writing a paper can seem like a daunting task. This image and list-based, step-by-step best dissertation service is the closest thing to writing a plug and chug paper you can get. So, are you ready to ace this paper of yours? The answer to this question is easy: look at the materials the prof gives you. The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. If you know that, you can write to the rubric and pick up easy points along the way.

Dissertation discussion section creative writing ideas for highschool students

Dissertation discussion section

You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work. You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past. Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section.

Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods. Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them.

If they are relevant, you should include them. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer.

Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points.

The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.

You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice.

This section should be written in the present tense. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. These linguistic moves are sort of like dance steps that build together to make a socially recognisable text. Think of any dance craze you can name. When I was a teenager, in the s! In the video, Jean Eu broke down the Macerana series of steps with the hands, arms and hips, that are put together to form moves.

The moves must appear in the right order or sequence to become a dance. People watching you, expecting to see the Macarena, will be confused. If you do a socially correct text, the knowledge you are putting forward for consideration can be easily assessed by the reader, because they are not distracted by the bad performance. The steps also give you a formula you can use to give your thoughts about your research findings a shape and form. So, what does the discussion section dance look like?

Each discipline is different. Try some of these sentence starters to get you going:. The picture that emerges from the analysis above is one of work practices being reshaped as employees negotiate the constant connectivity intrinsic to contemporary knowledge work. We have established a link between mediated communication and short, fragmented work episodes.

What is striking is that the predominant mode of communication during the workday is now tech- nologically mediated rather than face-to-face. However, each communication episode tends to be of a short duration — on average a period of five minutes or less. Kamler and Thomson suggest you strip out the content. You can now insert your own findings in to this cleared out structure.

This technique works best if you treat the original framework roughly, so that you produce something almost entirely new. The picture that emerges from the analysis above is one of many missed opportunities, which seems intrinsic to the post PhD job search. We have established a link between previous experience of specific work environments and success in job seeking. What is striking is that the strength of this connection is how little the graduates paid attention to the need to articulate their previous industry experience.

You might be wondering: is this plagiarism? No because you are not using the original knowledge or ideas, just the structure. You can write a whole discussion section like this if you like, but you would need to find a study with very similar findings. My hunch is that you could have to hijack paragraphs from different texts and stitch them together like a patchwork quilt. Your question will help me decide what to focus on, so please feel free to leave them in the comments.

How do I start my discussion section. The difficult discussion section. The textural organisation of the discussion sections of accounting research articles. Analysis of moves, rhetorical patterns and linguistic features in New Scientist articles.

Constant Connectivity: Rethinking Interruptions at Work. I cover all the expenses of operating the Thesis Whisperer out of my own pocket. You can find links to print versions on the Buy Books page. Thank you for this very timely post!

LAW DISSERTATION

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After noting the limitations, you can reiterate why the results are nonetheless valid for the purpose of answering your research questions. Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research. Sometimes the recommendations appear in the conclusion. Suggestions for further research can lead directly from the limitations.

There are a few common mistakes to avoid when writing the discussion section of your dissertation. As there is not always a clear separation between the discussion and the conclusion, we have combined them into one checklist. Most of these components can appear in both sections. You've written a great discussion section. Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis or dissertation.

Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a thesis expert improve your writing. Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation How to write a discussion section. There are many different ways to write this section, but you can focus your discussion around four key elements: Interpretations: what do the results mean?

Implications: why do the results matter? Recommendations: what practical actions or scientific studies should follow? I have concisely summarized the most important findings. I have discussed and interpreted the results in relation to my research questions. I have cited relevant literature to show how my results fit in. I have clearly explained the significance of my results. If relevant, I have considered alternative explanations of the results. I have acknowledged and evaluated the limitations of my research.

I have made relevant recommendations for further research or action. Well done! Return to checklist. Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. You can also begin by highlighting the most significant or unexpected results.

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. See editing example. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice.

Ask yourself these questions:. Your overall aim is to show the reader exactly what your research has contributed and why they should care. Even the best research has some limitations, and acknowledging these is important to demonstrate your credibility. Limitations might be due to your overall research design, specific methodological choices , or unanticipated obstacles that emerged during the research process. You should only mention limitations that are directly relevant to your research objectives , and evaluate how much impact they had on achieving the aims of the research.

For example, if your sample size was small or limited to a specific group of people, note that this limits its generalizability. If you encountered problems when gathering or analyzing data, explain how these influenced the results. If there are potential confounding variables that you were unable to control, acknowledge the effect these may have had.

After noting the limitations, you can reiterate why the results are nonetheless valid for the purpose of answering your research questions. Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research. Sometimes the recommendations are saved for the conclusion.

Suggestions for further research can lead directly from the limitations. There are a few common mistakes to avoid when writing the discussion section of your dissertation. You've written a great discussion section.

Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis or dissertation. In the discussion , you explore the meaning and relevance of your research results , explaining how they fit with existing research and theory. The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results.

The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter. In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context. The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation How to write a discussion section. There are many different ways to write this section, but you can focus your discussion around four key elements: Interpretations: what do the results mean? Implications: why do the results matter? Recommendations: what practical actions or scientific studies should follow?

HOW TO WRITE A CONCLUSION IN AN ESSAY

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Not sure how? Read our guide on how to write a dissertation introduction. Before you start on your research, you should have conducted a literature review to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work that already exists on your topic. This means:. For example, it might aim to show how your research:. The literature review often becomes the basis for a theoretical framework , in which you define and analyse the key theories, concepts and models that frame your research. In this section you can answer descriptive research questions about the relationship between concepts or variables.

The methodology chapter or section describes how you conducted your research, allowing your reader to assess its validity. You should generally include:. Your aim in the methodology is to accurately report what you did, as well as convincing the reader that this was the best approach to answering your research questions or objectives.

Next, you report the results of your research. You can structure this section around sub-questions, hypotheses, or topics. Only report results that are relevant to your objectives and research questions. In some disciplines, the results section is strictly separated from the discussion, while in others the two are combined. For example, for qualitative methods like in-depth interviews, the presentation of the data will often be woven together with discussion and analysis, while in quantitative and experimental research, the results should be presented separately before you discuss their meaning.

In the results section it can often be helpful to include tables, graphs and charts. Full versions of your data such as interview transcripts can be included as an appendix. The discussion is where you explore the meaning and implications of your results in relation to your research questions.

Here you should interpret the results in detail, discussing whether they met your expectations and how well they fit with the framework that you built in earlier chapters. If any of the results were unexpected, offer explanations for why this might be. The discussion should reference other scholarly work to show how your results fit with existing knowledge.

You can also make recommendations for future research or practical action. The dissertation conclusion should concisely answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your central argument. Wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you did and how you did it. The conclusion often also includes recommendations for research or practice. What have you added to what was already known?

You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography. Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list.

The most common styles used in UK universities are Harvard referencing and Vancouver referencing. To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use our free APA Citation Generator. Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures can be added as appendices.

Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a thesis expert improve your writing. Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer. Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title.

Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate.

Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits. You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results.

The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. This section should be written in the present tense. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review.

Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. Most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support it. You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory.

Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline. This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature.

Your explanations may include issues such as a non-representative sample for convenience purposes, a response rate skewed towards those with a particular experience, or your own involvement as a participant for sociological research. You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section.

A full understanding of the limitations of your research is part of a good discussion section. At this stage, you may want to revisit your literature review, unless you submitted it as a separate submission earlier, and revise it to draw out those studies which have proven more relevant. Conclude by summarising the implications of your findings in brief, and explain why they are important for researchers and in practice, and provide some suggestions for further work.