Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that earlier editions covered. For this reason, some of the examples below have been adapted from the instructions for sources with similar attributes e.
Every example below that has been adapted in this way is accompanied by a note explaining how it was adapted. Please also note: While this resource contains many examples of citations for uncommon print sources that we think are helpful, it may not account for every possibility. For even more examples of how to cite uncommon print sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite physical reference works such as dictionaries, thesauruses, or encyclopedias. Therefore, this citation, as well as the one for an individual author of an entry in a reference work, is modeled on that of a chapter in an edited book or anthology, both which are similar in format to reference works. Institution or organization name. Title of entry. In Title of reference work edition, page numbers.
Publisher name. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Lastname, F. Lastname ed. Tatum, S. Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. Stanley ed. Nail, T. What is an assemblage? SubStance , 46 1 , Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source.
In the text, use the following citation:. The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format. Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol. Angeli, E. Networks of communication in emergency medical services.
Database Name. Archive Name. Various Examples Thesis, from a commercial database Lope, M. Dissertation, from an institutional database Andrea, H. See Ch. Unpublished Dissertations and Theses. Author, A. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. Published Dissertations and Theses. Database or archive name. Thesis, from a commercial database. Dissertation, from an institutional database.
APA format recommends that your title be kept to 12 words in length or fewer, with no abbreviations or extraneous words. Below your title, type your name, including your middle initial. There is no need to include titles or degrees.
Your abstract is a critical element of your dissertation. This page includes your research topic, along with a brief summary of your research questions, methods, results and conclusions. Beginning on the next line, type your abstract. The abstract should be a single paragraph, between to words long.
Do not indent this paragraph. After this paragraph, list keywords relating to your dissertation to help researchers find your work in databases. To do this in APA format, indent and type the word "Keywords" in italics, followed by a colon, then list your keywords in plain font. In APA style, you use in-text citations next to the referenced text with the author-date method. If you are referencing a specific page or paraphrasing an idea, include the page number after the year of publication.
Proceeded the page number by "p. At the end of your dissertation, you need a list of works cited. All citations that are longer than a single line should use a hanging indentation on all subsequent lines. This means that the lines are indented five spaces. Fitzalan Gorman has more than 10 years of academic and commercial experience in research and writing. University of Nebraska-Lincoln , NE. Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music [ Unpublished doctoral dissertation ].
University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6 th edition. To cite a dissertation in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements: Author s of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials e. Watson, J. For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis … and add the last author's name. Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 6th edition: Author s of the dissertation. If the dissertation is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template: Author s of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials e. For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis … and add the last author's name.
Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available. Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution. Name of platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the dissertation. URL: If the dissertation was found on a database, omit this element.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 7th edition: Author s of the dissertation. If the dissertation has not been published or is available from a database use the following template: Author s of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials e.
Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name. If the dissertation is not published, use the following template: Author s of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials e. A dissertation found in an online platform Guo, J. An unpublished doctoral dissertation Neel, B.