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Csr dissertation Consequently, investments in things like the environment or social causes become a luxury and are often placed on the sacrificial la dissertation block when the going gets csr dissertation. Tesco expects that they are in a preliminary stage in the involvement in CSR. Selected by academic staff as a good example of csr dissertation masters level dissertation. The modern corporation has grown phenomenally impacting various constituencies They argue that some corporations start CSR programs for the commercial benefit they enjoy through raising their reputation with the public or with government. Consumers are becoming more aware of the environmental and social implications of their day-to-day consumer decisions and are therefore beginning to make purchasing decisions related to their environmental and ethical concerns. But recent news published in various well known newspapers that Vice President of Ambuja Cement, with few other department managers have been arrested in connection to the Ambuja cement factory mishap," Five workers were killed when an ash container crashed in the mixing unit of the plant
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Writing academic paper Csr dissertation came in peoples mind at the later csr dissertation, period of primary industrial development that organizations should care about the idea of social responsibility. Research method qualitative research method Essay writing tutorial approach Exploratory research approach Research strategy case study Data collection method Survey through interview Sample technique Simple random sampling Sample size Descriptive statistics mean, standard deviationFrequency Data analysis techniques distribution and inferential statistics. Formation of trust in e-commerce websites in Nigeria Obi, Lynda C. According to another survey by Business for Social Responsibility, a global organization, 90 per cent of American respondents want companies to look beyond the bottom line. The Indian ritual of touching the feet of elders is a good example of how respect manifests itself in everyday life. The second is as important as the first and stake holders of every company are increasingly taking an interest in the outer circle-the activities of the company and how these are impacting the environment and society.
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Corporate Strategy Sony Corporation. It is motivated by the recognition that a socially responsible approach can Corporate Social Responsibility and realised returns 5. CSR is a comparatively innovative and quite challenging issue for organizations all over the world that attracts extensive media coverage. This thesis is an examination of the financial consequences of corporations engaging in socially responsible activities.

You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly About item dissertation in line with Corporate Social Responsibility query results,the following is 1 to 50 Search took 0. This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Corporate social responsibility CSR is a self-regulation model for businesses to be. List of important corporate governance dissertation topic.

Of the impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance. A selection corporate social responsibility dissertation titles of corporate social responsibuility topics perpared for you by Dissertation Services Zimbabwe. The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility is not lost on The LEGO Group, and they have made waves in recent years with their CSR dealing with the environment, sociocultural norms, their employees, and of course, the children for whom they produce their products.

Corporate Social Responsibility and required returns 5. The aim was to analyze the consequences of corporate social responsibility on financial performance.. If you study this course that means you are looking for some competitive advantages in modern.

There are many other titles available in the Business Management and MBA dissertation collection that should be of interest to MBA students and academic. Choose your dissertation topics. Current models of ownership structure and their role in improving the company corporate performance. Put simply, CSR is a way for businesses to take responsibility for their interactions with stakeholders This dissertation on Corporate Social Responsibility: Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts was written and submitted by your fellow student.

In the naturalistic decision making process, we have made decisions in the context of framing bias Evans, Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation In the naturalistic decision making process, we have made decisions in the context of framing bias Evans, Corporate Social Responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility has recently become very valuable for modern business. Envisioned for communities lacking access to safe drinking water, the EKOCENTER kiosks contain vaccine storage, wireless communication technology, clean drinking water, and Coca-Cola products under the premise of "social enterprise.

The influence of corporate social responsibility on sustainable development. Social responsible companies have increased substantially the most recent years and many companies engage in what is today called corporate social responsibility CSR Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation Topics. Corporate social responsibility policy and factors affecting its implementation. The idea that corporations have social responsibility CSR to the society is as old as commerce that started almost years ago.

About item dissertation in line with Corporate Social Responsibility query results,the following is to Search took 0. Corporate Social Responsibility CSR is a legal and ethical mechanism, which businesses adopt to effect positive changes on social issues such as environment, health, economic conditions and others. I hope you enjoyed reading this post on corporate social responsibility dissertation titles Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy at Qatar Airways.

Personal statement examples for pharmacist, dissertation titles corporate social responsibility You are free to use corporate social responsibility dissertation titles it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly Corporate Social Responsibility topics for a PhD? Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation Topics, free write a process analysis essay, sample essay on improving grammar and spell checks, how to include a dialogue in an essay.

We assure you that the result will be worthy of your time and money This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Corporate social responsibility CSR is a self-regulation model corporate social responsibility dissertation titles for businesses to be. CSR Dissertation Topics If you are interested in social or environmental justice, then why not write your dissertation on corporate social responsibility CSR?

Other initiatives The company helped economically empower more than , women within the scope of 5by20 program in The program aims to achieve economic empowerment of 5 million women by the year of Coca Cola has supported more than physical activity programs in nearly countries and territories it operates. PlantBottle packaging is developed as an ambitious initiative to develop plastic bottles made partially from plants.

In the scope of its attempt to engage in responsible marketing Coca Cola does not advertise its products to children younger than 12 years old. Coca Cola CSR performance. Category: Corporate Social Responsibility.

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Corporate Strategy Sony Corporation. It is motivated by the recognition that a socially responsible approach can Corporate Social Responsibility and realised returns 5. CSR is a comparatively innovative and quite challenging issue for organizations all over the world that attracts extensive media coverage.

This thesis is an examination of the financial consequences of corporations engaging in socially responsible activities. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly About item dissertation in line with Corporate Social Responsibility query results,the following is 1 to 50 Search took 0.

This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Corporate social responsibility CSR is a self-regulation model for businesses to be. List of important corporate governance dissertation topic. Of the impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance.

A selection corporate social responsibility dissertation titles of corporate social responsibuility topics perpared for you by Dissertation Services Zimbabwe. The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility is not lost on The LEGO Group, and they have made waves in recent years with their CSR dealing with the environment, sociocultural norms, their employees, and of course, the children for whom they produce their products.

Corporate Social Responsibility and required returns 5. The aim was to analyze the consequences of corporate social responsibility on financial performance.. If you study this course that means you are looking for some competitive advantages in modern. There are many other titles available in the Business Management and MBA dissertation collection that should be of interest to MBA students and academic. Choose your dissertation topics. Current models of ownership structure and their role in improving the company corporate performance.

Put simply, CSR is a way for businesses to take responsibility for their interactions with stakeholders This dissertation on Corporate Social Responsibility: Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts was written and submitted by your fellow student. In the naturalistic decision making process, we have made decisions in the context of framing bias Evans, Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation In the naturalistic decision making process, we have made decisions in the context of framing bias Evans, Corporate Social Responsibility.

Corporate Social Responsibility has recently become very valuable for modern business. Envisioned for communities lacking access to safe drinking water, the EKOCENTER kiosks contain vaccine storage, wireless communication technology, clean drinking water, and Coca-Cola products under the premise of "social enterprise. The influence of corporate social responsibility on sustainable development.

Social responsible companies have increased substantially the most recent years and many companies engage in what is today called corporate social responsibility CSR Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation Topics.

Corporate social responsibility policy and factors affecting its implementation. The idea that corporations have social responsibility CSR to the society is as old as commerce that started almost years ago. About item dissertation in line with Corporate Social Responsibility query results,the following is to Search took 0.

Corporate Social Responsibility CSR is a legal and ethical mechanism, which businesses adopt to effect positive changes on social issues such as environment, health, economic conditions and others. I hope you enjoyed reading this post on corporate social responsibility dissertation titles Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy at Qatar Airways. Personal statement examples for pharmacist, dissertation titles corporate social responsibility You are free to use corporate social responsibility dissertation titles it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly Corporate Social Responsibility topics for a PhD?

Corporate Social Responsibility Dissertation Topics, free write a process analysis essay, sample essay on improving grammar and spell checks, how to include a dialogue in an essay. We assure you that the result will be worthy of your time and money This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Corporate social responsibility CSR is a self-regulation model corporate social responsibility dissertation titles for businesses to be.

CSR Dissertation Topics If you are interested in social or environmental justice, then why not write your dissertation on corporate social responsibility CSR? There is always a trade-off between economic development, in the material sense, and the welfare of the society and environment. Social responsibility means sustaining the equilibrium between the two.

It pertains not only to business organizations but also to everyone whos any action impacts the environment. This responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in socially harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals. Businesses can use ethical decision making to secure their businesses by making decisions that allow for government agencies to minimize their involvement with the corporation.

Kaliski, For instance if a company is proactive and follows the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA guidelines for emissions on dangerous pollutants and even goes an extra step to get involved in the community and address those concerns that the public might have; they would be less likely to have the EPA investigate them for environmental concerns. A significant element of current thinking about privacy, however, stresses "self-regulation" rather than market or government mechanisms for protecting personal information Swire , Most rules and regulations are formed due to public outcry, if there is not outcry there often will be limited regulation.

Critics argue that Corporate social responsibility CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; others 4. A significant number of studies have shown no negative influence on shareholder results from CSR but rather, a slightly positive correlation with improved shareholder returns. Human Resource Management CSR can be successfully implemented in an organization through precise management of its own work force.

The internal dimension of CSR includes elements like providing an environment for lifelong learning for employees, employee empowerment, better information flow, improving the balance between work, family, and leisure, diversified work force, profit sharing and share ownership schemes, concern for employability as well as job security among others.

Active follow up and management of employees who are off work due to disabilities or injuries have also been shown to result in cost savings for the companies. Molding of recruitment policies to include people from ethnic minorities, older workers, women and the long-term unemployed would be a significant step forward to incorporating CSR practices in Human Resources Management.

In the context of emerging markets, the availability of cheap labor is an encouraging factor for companies. Dawar and Chattopadhyay infer from their research that many times, emerging markets are able to provide cheap skilled and unskilled labor at wages which would be substantially cheaper than the normal cost of automation of the job positions.

Developed markets 5. By contrast labor-intensive distribution remains economical in emerging markets. For example, in emerging markets, Coca-Cola has not invested in vending machines. These are too expensive relative to salespeople. Benjamin, Brandt and Glewwe report that in China, instead of vending machines, the company has experimented with a pushcart program in which salespeople dispense the companys drinks by the single-serve bottle. Daily sales of as little as cups justify the cost of the fountain and the person employed to dispense the drinks.

Work safety and health measures Worker safety and labor health have been documented to be having a direct impact on productivity of the labor force. Although legal measures exist in most nations on maintaining standards for ensuring worker safety and providing health benefits, recent trends have made it imperative for companies to adopt a proactive approach to this issue.

In emerging markets having significant cost advantages in labor, outsourcing of labor and processes have led to the situation where companies not only need to maintain high safety levels in their own premises but also ensure that their suppliers and other connected parties comply with these principles. The increased focus on safety standards and employee welfare has led to the development of standards across industries. Mechanisms are being designed especially in emerging markets for measuring, documenting and communicating these qualities thereby saving time, work and costs in the purchasing process.

Adaptation to change A recent trend in the global business scenario has been the wide spread use of mergers and acquisitions for business expansion. Also downsizing has been used, often ineffectively, as a cost cutting measure by firms in their relentless push for profits. According to the Green Paper by the Commission of the European Communities Restructuring in a socially responsible manner means to balance and take into consideration the 6.

In practice the process is often as important as the substance to the success of restructuring. In particular this involves seeking the participation and involvement of those affected through open information and consultation. Furthermore, restructuring needs to be well prepared by identifying major risks, calculating all the costs, direct and indirect, associated with alternative strategies and policies, and evaluating all of the alternatives which would reduce the need for redundancies.

However, Bhattacharyya and Rahman point out that although most emerging economies have labor laws preventing labor retrenchment even in the event of declining sales, in practice lobbying with the bureaucracy and government is an aspect which firms cannot chose to ignore. Management of environmental impacts The importance of this aspect of CSR cannot be overemphasized.

Optimization of resource utilization and reducing environmentally damaging effluents can reduce the environmental impact. This will also enable the firms to affect significant cost savings in energy bills and pollution costs. Many firms in emerging markets have had to face serious repercussions from the state and society for over exploitation of natural resources and disregard for environmental safety measures. Studies by Consultancy and Research for Environmental Management on practices of Dutch multinational companies in India highlight the importance attached by the companies to maintenance of environmental standards.

Many multinational companies are realizing to their cost that early compliance with accepted standards will provide strategic advantages in the long run even though cost inefficient in the near future. The significance of this dimension of CSR has come to the forefront with the advent of globalization leading to the development of international standards for business practices. Local communities The development of positive relations with the local community and thereby the accumulation of social capital is particularly relevant for non-local companies.

These relations are being increasingly used by multinational companies to support the integration of their subsidiaries into 7. Deep understanding of the local community and social customs is an asset which can be utilized by the companies to gain strategic advantage. In emerging markets, this is more relevant than ever because of the availability of cheaper labor from the local communities. Companies would find it in their interest to substitute capital substitution with labor and reap the cost benefits.

For example, Dawar and Chattopadhyay point out the instance of Whirlpool. Whirlpool discovered that it was unable to sell its high priced, fully automatic machines in the emerging markets. It was only after it introduced twin-tub machines that were cheaper and utilized the consumers labor rather than electronics to complete the entire washing cycle that sales took off.

Interestingly, due to the fact that these machines had long disappeared in the developed markets, Whirlpool had to acquire the obsolete technology from Korea. Business partners Building long term relationships of sound ethical foundation with suppliers, customers and even competitors in rare occasions will enable companies to meet customer expectations better while reducing complexity and costs.

Companies should realize their CSR practices will be judged taking into account the practices of their partners and suppliers throughout the supply chain. The effect of corporate social responsibility activities will not remain limited to the company itself, but will also touch upon their economic partners. Companies in emerging markets actually take on additional CSR responsibilities because of the existence of outsourcing opportunities in the form of suppliers and outsourcing agents.

Also as part of their social responsibility companies are expected to provide high quality products and services, which meet customer expectations in a manner reflecting the companys concern for the environment and the local conditions.

Thus in emerging markets, consumer based business strategies would enable companies to build long lasting relationships with consumers based on trust. Human rights According to Robbins , Companies operating in countries where human rights are regularly violated may experience a climate of civil instability and corruption that makes for 8.

Amnesty International states: Companies have a direct responsibility to ensure the protection of human rights in their own operations. They also have a responsibility to use their influence to mitigate the violation of human rights by governments, the forces of law and order or opposition groups in the countries in which they operate.

The Caux Round Table Principles state that companies have a responsibility to respect human rights and democratic institutions; and promote them wherever practical. In the context of emerging markets, operations of companies should not impinge on the land rights of the local community. In particular, the company needs to make sure that people are not forcibly removed from their homes and their livelihoods are not endangered. There is the growing need to develop proper consultative processes with local groups protesting against projects or operations in which they are involved.

Firms also need to build confidence in the local community that people including union members participating in peaceful protests against company operations are not intimidated, arrested or in any other way threatened. Also, companies can take steps to ensure forced labor is not used in their own, or their suppliers operations. According to Robbins , there are reports of Gulags or prison labor camps in China producing products that are then sold locally or exported.

An example of foreign companies benefiting from the ruling regimes abuse of its people is the building of the gas pipeline in Burma. Numerous reports tell of the use of forced labor on a grand scale. Companies need to ensure that human rights principles are withheld in all their operations and related activities in emerging markets. It is morally binding on everyone to act in such a way that the people immediately around them are not adversely affected. ISR is a commitment everyone has towards the society contributing towards social, cultural and ecological causes.

ISR is based on an individuals ethics. Instead of giving importance only to those areas where one has material interests the individual supports issues for philanthropic reasons. The trends however show that big charitable organizations recorded high growth due to the SR efforts of individuals and not corporate or the 9. ISR may be slightly impractical, especially in the modern competitive world, where everyone works for self-interest, but it will succeed if we take decisions based on what will benefit a large number of people and respect everyones fundamental rights.

As individuals we can make our small contributions to society by donating money to trustworthy NGOs, saving our resources by reducing our consumption, Eg. In every religion be it Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Christianity great stress has been laid upon individual social responsibility. In the Bhagavad Gita, also known as the management epic Lord Krishna teaches Arjun what his responsibilities as a king are.

The Karma Yoga tells us about the fruits of our labour and how they are directly related with our individual actions. According to Karma Yoga a company which does good work will reap their benefits and vice-versa. Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR has been defined by Lord Holme and Richard Watts in The World Business Council for Sustainable Developments publication Making Good Business Sense as the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large".

CSR is one of the newest management strategies where companies try to create a positive impact on society while doing business. There is no clear-cut definition of what CSR comprises. Every company has different CSR objectives though the main motive is the same. All companies have a two point agenda- to improve qualitatively the management of people and processes and quantitatively the impact on society. The second is as important as the first and stake holders of every company are increasingly taking an interest in the outer circle-the activities of the company and how these are impacting the environment and society.

Faunce and Nasu The International Organization for Standardization ISO is developing an international standard to provide guidelines for adopting Due for publication in , this standard will "encourage voluntary commitment to social responsibility and will lead to common guidance on concepts, definitions and methods of evaluation. Spirituality and Corporate Social Responsibility have had a deep-rooted connection in India. A phenomenon that has preceded the coining of the term CSR, the link between the karma as espoused by sacred Indian texts and initiatives anchoring corporate as responsible citizens has been amply evident in India since the early days.

Viewed from this perspective, public relations professionals are the custodians of trust for the corporate world. While the global spotlight today focuses on debates on corporate trust, India can proudly flaunt a head start in this arena. Yet, before we present Indias case, lets briefly scan some recent happenings, particularly in the US, that led to an erosion of trust in Corporate Inc.

Erosion of Trust in Corporate Inc. The consequent tarnishing of gilt edged names like Enron, WorldCom, Xerox, Arthur Andersen, Kodak, to name a few, has had widespread ripple effects in the corporate world. There are a number of suits, in what could turn out to be the biggest case, against Citigroup, J P Morgan and other investment banks for helping Enron and other companies to commit fraud, and for rigging IPOs to defraud the investing public.

Needless to say, this is hardly an exhaustive list. The repercussions have been immense. And few of the respondents really believe that anyone can or will do much about all this. According to another survey by Business for Social Responsibility, a global organization, 90 per cent of American respondents want companies to look beyond the bottom line.

BSR also found that nearly 50 per cent form an impression of a company based on its behavior and 39 per cent react negatively to a company that is perceived not to be socially responsible. These are challenging times for companies, pension funds and individual investors. The Teacher Retirement System of Texas and the Texas Employee Retirement System is the last fund that you would expect to be impacted by corporate scandal.

But look again. Both funds invested in Enron, and both talk about their losses on their respective websites. In the communications business, we confront the challenge of this changing environment every day. We see stakeholders hold companies under the magnifying glass, checking accountability, monitoring performance and assessing a companys impact in a community or on the We have seen and continue to see how this intense scrutiny has affected businesses.

India too has seen some repercussions of the global mood: There has been a general mood breeding a lack of trust in regulators following recent scams unearthed in the Indian stock markets. The brooding has had its fallout on unsuspecting companies, as ICICI Bank, one of the countrys largest banks, would confirm.

A short message service that the bank was on the verge of bankruptcy started the run, gathered momentum as messages were flashed across cell phone networks, ICICI Bank branches across many cities witnessed the unedifying spectacle of queues of people waiting to withdraw their money as fast as they could. The Reserve Bank of India had to step in to calm things down. After speaking with more than 1, business influential CEOs and other senior executives, financial analysts, institutional investors, the business media and government officials in the United States the research infers that the CEOs reputation is a key factor in a companys reputation.

In fact, the research data reveals that: CEO reputation accounts for a staggering 48 per cent of a companys reputation Companies whose CEOs were rated most admired achieved a 13 per cent compound annual shareholder return over a three-year period. Companies with CEOs who were rated less favorably delivered a negative return. Eighty-eight per cent of respondents said that the CEOs reputation would influence whether they would recommend a company as a good place to work. Ninety-four per cent would believe the company if under media pressure.

Ninety-two per cent would maintain confidence in the company when share price is lagging. The rise in the number, influence and sophistication of non-governmental organizations that monitor, track and inspect global corporate players. Less than 30 years ago, there were 1, NGOs. In , there were nearly 30, Today that number has grown 10 fold.

An increase in shareholder activism. Of the more than shareholder resolutions filed in the US in , more than a third of them were based on social issues. Greater disclosure requirements of social and environmental performance as part of their new economic regulations by Governments, particularly in Europe.

Just three years ago, the concept of triple bottom line reporting that means assessing and providing an accounting of a companys social, environmental and economic impact and performance was embraced by only an enlightened few. Today, such reporting is embraced by the majority to prove they are acting responsibly. Respect is, in some ways, an intrinsic part of Indian culture.

The Indian ritual of touching the feet of elders is a good example of how respect manifests itself in everyday life. This transcends into the corporate world. For decades now, since Independence, corporate majors such as the Tata and Birla group companies have led the way in making corporate social responsibility an intrinsic part of their business plans. These companies have been intensely involved with social development initiatives in the communities surrounding their facilities.

Jamshedpur, one of the prominent cities in the northeastern state of Bihar in India is also known as Tata Nagar and stands out at a beacon for other companies to follow. Respect is a much sought after tag in the Indian corporate world. This is one of the reasons for the immense popularity of The Most Respected Companies of India survey, initiated by one of Indias premier business magazines, Business World in , long before skeletons began toppling out of the corporate closets around the globe.

In fact, the magazine admitted in a cover feature following its first survey that the overwhelming reader response to its first ever ranking of corporate reputations indicated that there is a great deal of interest within the management community in the subject of corporate reputations and that this interest was more than academic.

Increased profit: Several studies have shown a direct correlation between socially responsible business practice and positive financial performance. A DePaul university study found that company with a defined corporate commitment to ethical principle do better financially than companies that dont. Access to capital: Companies that are committed to CSR often have accessed to capital that would not otherwise be available due to increase in socially responsible investment SRI.

Over time, they improve official efficiency by reducing waste production and water usage, increasing energy efficiency and in some cases, selling recycled materials. There are also the company specific ways of reducing operating costs e.

Dow chemical co. By considering impacts, a companys action can result in environmental, social and economic benefits. Construction firms, for example reducing products on-site: reduced landfill, reduced community and noise disturbances of additional trucks bringing materials to site, reduced the environmental impact of damaged caused by heavy trucks wheels and reduced cost for the client of buying new materials.

Enhanced brand image and reputation A good reputation is often very hard to build and yet can be destroyed in less than a day. So much of a companys reputation results from trust by stakeholders. A strong reputation in environmental and social responsibility can help a company build this trust. However, it need to result from real practices and can see through fluff. Non Government organization NGOs and local communities are far more willing to not take action as a result of environmentallydemanding incident if it is evident that the company has genuinely worked hard to prevent it happening in the first place, and in place solid management practice for rectifying the situationquickly-and for learning and improving to prevent repeat occurrence.

Increased sales and customer loyalty: Research has shown that consumer not only want good and safe products, but they also want to know that what they buy was produced in a socially and environmentally responsible way. Conversely 1 in 6 shoppers frequently boycott products because of the manufactures reputation. Likewise car can lead to new products lines. As Dr Richard steckel and robin Simons pointed out in their book doing best by doing good. In when Schumacher wanted a new product line, the company went to the national trust for historic presentation.

The trustlicensed Schumacher to reproduce fabric patters and artifacts found in the buildings. The national trust benefits by receiving operating income from the royalties. Increased productivity and quality: Business for the social responsibility id the membership for the organization based in san Francisco that helps companies to improve their CSR learning, management and activities. For example companies that improve working condition and labour practices among their suppliers often experience a decrease in merchandise that is defective or cant be sold.

Increased ability to attract and retain employees: A companys dedication to CSR can helped to attract and retain employees. People want to work for a company that is in accordance with their on values and beliefs. Employees are not just worried about promotion and salary any more.

Potentially, reduced regulatory oversight: The more a company shows it is committed to CSR by complying with an going beyond legislation the more lenient governments and regulators may be with the company. Reducing risk and increased risk management: The more the company is committed to CSR the less they are exposing themselves to business risk. This could be reputation risk following bad press, e. Morley fund management for e. Has produced environmental reporting guidelines outlining the type of information it expects companies to include in their reports.

Keeping up with competitors and where the market is:. This is where business is heading: the world over regardless of the regional culture. The UK, Denmark, France, and other areas in Europe; the USA, Canada India, South Africa, china are the countries that come to mind immediately when discussing the weather and how companies are embracing the concept of the corporate social responsibility.

There are other four all starting point are often different. Government, the city investors, local communities and suppliers are all putting pressure on companies to live up to their expectation of the company in the society and in the environment. Outcomes of CSR Some of the positive outcomes that can arise when businesses adopt a policy of social responsibility include: Company Benefits: Improved financial performance Lower operating costs Enhanced brand image and reputation Increased sales and customer loyalty Greater productivity and quality More ability to attract and retain employees Access to capital Product safety and decreased liability Benefits to the community and the general public: Charitable contributions Employee volunteer programs Product safety and quality Corporate involvement in community education, employment and homelessness programs Environmental benefits: Greater material recyclability Better product durability and functionality Greater use of renewable resources Integration of environmental management tools into business plans Business importance of CSR: Importance of CSR to a companys activities Improved financial performance Reduced Operating Costs Enhanced Brand Image and Reputation Increased Sales and Customer Loyalty Increased productivity and quality Increased ability to attract and retain employees Reduced regulatory oversight Drivers of CSR: The shrinking role of government Demands for greater disclosure Increased customer interest Growing investor pressure Competitive labour markets.

During the initial stages of development of CSR in emerging economies, the community involvement is more along the lines of a philanthropic involvement with company involvement limited to As compared with the developed countries like US, CSR in developing countries is seen as part of corporate philanthropy where corporations augment the social development to support the initiatives of the government.

However in the US it is seen as a strategic tool which helps the organizations to have a legitimate existence in the society. CSR is considered inbuilt in the business existence of the traditional firms in the emerging markets like India Mohan, However, trends in this regard are heartening with companies trying to establish strategic alliances with the state and the civil society thus establishing the presence of CSR as an institution in these markets.

The remaining parameters are internal to the firm involving the molding of their business activities while incorporating CSR practices. As companies start to embrace CSR practices to a greater extent, it leads to changes in production processes so that all environmental and societal norms are also satisfied even though they may not contribute to the profit maximizing objective of the firm. This will mean that human rights agreements are also upheld taking into account the rights of the local communities.

CSR also leads to evolution of employee relations in the company in such a way that employees become major stakeholders with definite decision making powers especially in the area of formulation of CSR policy. The results of the comparative study of these parameters by Chambers, Chapple, Moon and Sullivan show that currently Asian nations are still faring strongly only in the first parameter of community involvement thus corroborating the similar findings of Moon Notwithstanding the fact that business produces goods and services that society needs, there is also interdependence between business and society as an ongoing process.

Increasingly, up to the s the understanding of CSR focused on companies obligation to work for social betterment. However, since the s focus shifted to social responsiveness in other words, the capacity of organizations to respond to social pressures.

With the change in the. Simon Zadek describes the development of CSR broadly in terms of three generations. The first generation of CSR showed that companies can be responsible in ways that do not detract from commercial success. The most prominent changes include adoption of a strategic approach to philanthropy, expansion of the geographic focus of corporate, and evolving of measurement tools.

W Hofer A Third Generation of CSR is expected to make a significant contribution to address issues such as poverty, exclusion and environmental degradation. This will involve both partnerships with civil society and changes in public policy. Mandatory social and environmental reporting and support for consumer education, among other Zadek Arguments for CSR: Those who argue in favor of organization in socially responsible ways offer many reasons, such as: Balancing corporate power with corporate responsibilities.

Discouraging the creation and imposition of government regulations. Focusing on social problems. Arguments against CSR: Organizations fulfill certain needs of society, and it is feasible for civil society to benefit from the activities of an organization.

Some arguments against CSR are: Stakeholders bear the costs of corporate social action shareholders, employees and consumers , which affect a corporations operating efficiency and weaken competitive position and advantage. Mismatch of the roles and expectations between the organization and society.

The prospects of corporations becoming even more powerful, as they may already exercise considerable power over society. Management is trained in functional areas of management and does not have generic in handling society issues. According to Fieser , business ethics examines moral controversies that commonly arise in the business world.

Resolving ethical conflicts needs to take into account legal and moral aspects. The operationalization of business ethics is related to other forms of CSR, such as articulation and integration of core values, stakeholder interactions, social audit and other forms of socialperformance measurement and reporting Business for Social Responsibility, Humanitarian CSR is Carrolls fourth face of CSRphilanthropic responsibilities: the implied concept of corporate citizenship fundamental to the notion of giving back to society.

Such strategic philanthropy grew popular around the mids. Carroll, expects it to grow in the years ahead. Socially responsible behavior involves sacrifices. Political Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility The political theory of corporate social responsibility is based on assumptions about the motivations of public officials and corporations.

Political decision-makers orient their behavior towards constituencies that can provide valuable resources. Elected officials seek resources that can help them get reelected. Appointed officials seek political support to perform their jobs effectively.

Society Contract Theory The earliest elements of the notion of the existence of a social contract are found in Platos The Republic. Philosophers such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau later expanded on Hobbes work and developed it towards different directions.

A social contract, with implicit and explicit terms, is conceived to exist between the organization and the public at large, not just merely its shareholders. Friedman prescribed that an organizations sole responsibility was to maximize profits for shareholders. In the past, a firms profits were viewed as a measure of legitimacy. In , Freeman focused on the stakeholder view and propounded six categories: owners, employees, customers, suppliers, communities and governments. Other scholars have since included the natural environment as an additional stakeholder Carroll and Buchholz, In general terms, these most commonly are environmental and ethics efforts.

A more specific list of self-regulatory activities would include: The adoption of business ethics codes or codes of conduct; efforts to ensure racial, ethnic, and gender diversity; transparency and accountability measures; compliance with labor laws and protection of human rights. In defining CSR, neoliberal writers tend to see it fundamentally as the adoption of a set of voluntary policies, codes or guidelines, initiated and driven by the corporation.

For example, the Australian Treasury, in a Submission to the Joint Parliamentary Inquiry on CSR, defined CSR as a companys management of the economic, social and environmental impacts of its activities Australian Government, Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services The neoliberal discourse around CSR generally shares the view articulated by Milton Friedman in the New York Times on September 13, there is one and only one social responsibility of business-to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud.

Companies provide products and services and, in doing so, they create jobs and wealth. Increasingly, stakeholders shareholders, investors, communities, regulators, employees, customers and non-governmental organizations are taking a broader perspective of corporate responsibility that incorporates not only economic performance, but also social and environmental performance factors.

In the s, it was the growing economic and technological power of US industry, however in the s; European industry is ready to challenge the US via the CSR route. These principles focus on labour standards, human rights and environmental protection. The UK Government has strongly supported the Compact from the outset, as an incentive to the private sector to pay its part in economic development, while being accountable against universally recognized principles.

The Governments approach to CSR should centre around productivity and competitiveness and on achieving transparency in the market to promote an effective dialogue with stakeholders. The new focuses on the need for socially driven investments, consistency in profits, fair wealth distribution and good governance. NGOs are actively intervening by way of stakeholder and community engagement action programmers.

The debate between the private sector, civil society and governments focuses on a few key issues. As there is no single, commonly accepted definition of CSR, there is also no commonly accepted classification of the main components of CSR. Often, CSR is related to. Over the past several years, environmental responsibility has expanded to involve substantially more than compliance with all applicable government regulation or even a few initiatives such as recycling or energy efficiency.

Many citizens, environmental organization and leadership companies now define environmental responsibility as involving a comprehensive approach to a companys operation, maximizing the efficiency and productivity of all assets and resources; and minimizing practices that might adversely affect the enjoyment of the planets resources by future generations.

LABOR SECURITY It includes freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor; the effective abolition of child labor; and the elimination of discrimination in respect of environment and occupation. The main focus is on developing workplaces free from discrimination where creativity and learning can flourish decent codes of professional conduct and where a proper balance can be maintain between work and other aspects of our lives.

Behaving irresponsibly on the issue of the issue of human right could be costly because their reputation and bottom line is at stake. This is also related to globalization and increasing international trade and challenge of findings ways of doing business world wide that respect human right and social justice and facilitate the appropriate development of the emerging economies.

Countries are expected to support and respect the So socially responsible management practices may contribute directly to profits. When strategically designed and executed, these initiatives not only bring values in local communities where they have significant commercial interests as well as around the world.

The standards are usually accepted at corporate, business association, industry or country level. The risk of international trade, globalization, and instant communication has led to increasing pressure from various groups for the formation of global business conduct standards. Can compliance with a global standard be audited? And if so, who, if anyone, should monitor compliance? These activities may be grouped into six categories; 1 product manufacturing and integrity; 2 disclosure, labeling and packaging; 3 marketing and advertising; 4 selling practices; 5 pricing; and 6 distribution.

In each of these areas, companies are retooling their business strategies to address new issues such as privacy and technology, marketing to children, heightened expectations for product safety and environmental impact, increased scrutiny by consumers and non governmental organization, and the steady globalization of the consumer movement.

This broad concept includes: competitiveness, development of local Sees, entrepreneurship, community economic development, micro finance in emerging economies etc. In many cases, however, the lack of an enabling business framework and a scarcity of support structures for new businesses can work their wealth of financial, technical, and managerial expertise, are being called upon to provide a focal point of support for local businesses.

At the same time, Macs can work to help governments understand the ways in which an enabling business framework can be developed to fuel domestic entrepreneurial efforts. Private sector business plays a dominant role as the driver of current global economic development, and globalization is bringing new social and economic challenges.

World Health Organization director general to the 51st world health assembly in , grow Harlem bundled indicated a signification shift in World Health Organizations policy towards engaging the private sector when she: we must reach out to the private sector The private sector has an important role to play both in technology development and the provision of services.

Companies can also make more critical impact on the development process by raising standards in corporate education and leadership development, and bringing best practices to their partners in developing and transitional economies. Due to the rising cost, threat and complexity of the consequences of major disasters on society, the key players to utilize more development oriented approach. It requires organizations to be actively involved in the process of social and community development.

Corporate activities in this area should complement and supplement government action and not substitute it. It is widely understood that being a good corporate citizen also makes good business sense. Areas of social responsibility include respecting human rights, contributing to social economic development, employee welfare this include right to organize, eliminating child labour, non discrimination, living wage and social security, training, safety, health and well being, lifelong learning, empowerment of employees etc.

Consumer protection includes right to information. Respect for national sovereignty and local communities for multinationals. Sharing resources with underprivileged communities and investing in sustainable development programs for the community. Areas of environmental responsibility include respect for environment and environment friendly technologies, conservation and discharge of energy, material and water in eco-friendly manner, adopting preventive and precautionary measures for environment pollution control, rectifying environmental damage at source, treating waste before disposing it, preservation of bio diversity, promoting and implementing an environmental policy for sustainable energy and environment.

Areas of business responsibility includes compliance with tax laws and other regulations, investing in developing science and technology, fostering ethical trade practices, regulating suppliers CSR practices and distributors CSR practices and transparent financial reporting. Areas of corporate social responsibility include extension of principles and ethical values enshrined in organization to all its stake holders such as authorities, customer group, business partners and external influences.

Mainly because of the bad memories of mandatory volunteering during the reign of totalitarian governments, this form of corporate engagement in new EU countries, as compared to the EU countries, is having a hard time ending its place.

However, employee volunteering can serve as an interesting team building tool. Most importantly, there is often a wide chasm between what's good for a company and what's good for society as a whole. The reasons for this can be captured under what I'll argue are the four key myths of CSR. Myth 1: The market can deliver both short-term financial returns and long-term social benefits. One assumption behind CSR is that business outcomes and social objectives can become more or less aligned.

The rarely expressed reasoning behind this assumption goes back to the basic assumptions of free-market capitalism: People are rational actors who are motivated to maximize their self-interest. Since wealth, stable societies, and healthy environments are all in individuals' self-interest, individuals will ultimately invest, consume, and build companies in both profitable and socially responsible ways.

In other words, the market will ultimately balance itself. Yet, there is little if any empirical evidence that the market behaves in this way. In fact, it would be difficult to prove that incentives like protecting natural assets, ensuring an educated labor force for the future, or making voluntary contributions to local community groups actually help companies improve their bottom line.

While there are pockets of success stories where business drivers can be aligned with social objectives, such as Cisco's Networking Academies, which are dedicated to developing a labor pool for the future, they only provide a patchwork approach to improving the public good. In any case, such investments are particularly unlikely to pay off in the two- to four-year time horizon that public companies, through demands of the stock market, often seem to require. As we all know, whenever a company issues a "profits warning," the markets downgrade its share price.

Consequently, investments in things like the environment or social causes become a luxury and are often placed on the sacrificial chopping block when the going gets rough. Meanwhile, we have seen an abject failure of companies to invest in things that may have a longer-term benefit, like health and safety systems. At the same time, class-action lawsuits may be brought against Wal-Mart over accusations of poor labor practices, yet the world's largest and most successful company is rewarded by investors for driving down its costs and therefore its prices.

The market, quite frankly, adores Wal-Mart. Meanwhile, a competitor outlet, Costco, which offers health insurance and other benefits to its employees, is being pressured by its shareholders to cut those benefits to be more competitive with Wal-Mart. When shareholder interests dominate the corporate machine, outcomes may become even less aligned to the public good. As Marjorie Kelly writes in her book, "The Divine Right of Capital": "It is inaccurate to speak of stockholders as investors, for more truthfully they are extractors.

Though there is a small market that is proactively rewarding ethical business, for most consumers ethics are a relative thing. In fact, most surveys show that consumers are more concerned about things like price, taste, or sell-by date than ethics. In the United Kingdom, ethical consumerism data show that although most consumers are concerned about environmental or social issues, with 83 percent of consumers intending to act ethically on a regular basis, only 18 percent of people act ethically occasionally, while fewer than 5 percent of consumers show consistent ethical and green purchasing behaviors.

In the United States, since , Roper ASW has tracked consumer environmental attitudes and propensity to buy environmentally oriented products, and it categorizes consumers into five "shades of green": True-Blue Greens, Greenback Greens, Sprouts, Grousers, and Basic Browns. True-Blue Greens are the "greenest" consumers, those "most likely to walk their environmental talk," and represent about 9 percent of the population.

The least environmentally involved are the "Basic Browns," who believe "individual actions such as buying green products or recycling can't make a difference" and represent about 33 percent of the population. Joel Makower, co-author of "The Green Consumer Guide," has traced data on ethical consumerism since the early s, and says that, in spite of the overhyped claims, there has been little variation in the behavior of ethical consumers over the years, as evidenced by the Roper ASW data.

Even with the steep rise in fuel prices, consumers are still having a love affair with them, as sales rose by almost 8 percent in These data show that threats of climate change, which may affect future generations more than our own, are hardly an incentive for consumers to alter their behavior. A further myth of CSR is that competitive pressure amongst companies will actually lead to more companies competing over ethics, as highlighted by an increasing number of awards schemes for good companies, like the Business Ethics Awards, or Fortune's annual "Best Companies to Work For" competitions.

But in some cases businesses may be able to capitalize on well-intentioned efforts, say by signing the U. Global Compact, without necessarily having to actually change their behavior. The U. But all such schemes to reward good corporate behavior leave us carrying a new risk that by promoting the "race to the top" idea, we tend to reward the "best of the baddies.

While companies are vying to be seen as socially responsible to the outside world, they also become more effective at hiding socially irresponsible behavior, such as lobbying activities or tax avoidance measures. Corporate income taxes in the United States fell from 4. Of course, in the end, this is just the type of PR opportunity a business can capitalize on. Adopting or contributing to schools is now a common CSR initiative by leading companies, such as Cisco Systems or European supermarket chain Tesco.

Myth 4: in the global economy, countries will compete to have the best ethical practices. CSR has risen in popularity with the increase in reliance on developing economies. It is generally assumed that market liberalization of these economies will lead to better protection of human and environmental rights, through greater integration of oppressive regimes in the global economy, and with the watchful eye of multinational corporations that are actively implementing CSR programs and policies.

Nonetheless, companies often fail to uphold voluntary standards of behavior in developing countries, arguing instead that they operate within the law of the countries in which they are working. In fact, competitive pressure for foreign investment among developing countries has actually led to governments limiting their insistence on stringent compliance with human rights or environmental standards, in order to attract investment. In Sri Lanka, for example, as competitive pressure from neighboring China has increased in textile manufacturing, garment manufacturers have been found to lobby their government to increase working hours.

In the end, most companies have limited power over the wider forces in developing countries that keep overall wage rates low. Nevertheless, for many people a job in a multinational factory may still be more desirable than being a doctor or a teacher, because the wages are higher and a worker's rights seem to be better protected.

The CSR approaches since the s have become: inclusive in the sense that multi stakeholder initiatives are being adopted to promote the concept and practices of introducing and managing CSR programs. Large corporations are increasingly recognizing the need for corporate social action in the wake of consumer movements and demands of the civil society. CSR is being interpreted as good corporate governance and the need for good governance could hardly be overstressed.

NGOs, trade unions and multilateral institutions are emphasizing adoption of codes and standards to promote monitoring and certification, of which the Global Reporting initiative is one example. The issues involved in encouraging and institutionalizing public-private partnerships are also debated world-wide. While the need for newer and innovative measures to assess the impact of CSR programs on the society and community is stressed, we have yet to achieve significant progress in this regard.

On the one hand, large corporations have not much difficulty in committing some resources towards promotions of CSR, on the other, the execution of multifarious schemes of CSR and their monitoring and evaluation raise some fundamental concerns. CSR is not the core competence of the corporate planners and top executives of the large corporations regardless of their ownership. It is necessary to have an assessment if the government and various institutions are to be committed to durable public-private partnership.

One of the limitations of the approaches to promoting CSR has been the relative lack of clarity of the definition of CSR and the models of CSR to be adopted by the companies. The net result is that regardless of ownership, the large corporations are undertaking multifarious activities, without developing the core competency and adopting adequate institutional safeguards to ensure an appropriate framework for CSR implementation. The second limitation is that many corporations, especially the public enterprises, who are ready to engage in CSR as it is being mandated by the Government, are not in a position to determine what segments of socially responsive investment they should commit themselves to.

They are on the lookout for project ideas and they may hold dialogues with the NGOs and other organizations as an exploration but they may not get much out of such an exercise because of One of the consequences is that the corporations prefer the existing product-existing market model and therefore, adopt the measures and social action programs that the other corporations are implementing. This is turn shows a relative lack of measures to innovate and evolve newer CSR leadership roles.

The preference for standardized approaches does not allow opportunities to the corporations to adopt local approaches. Also in this process the public-private partnerships may leave out a significant segment of the small and medium enterprises that may often bear the brunt of implicit costs of CSR programs adopted by the mega corporations. The World Bank research has classified public sector engagement into mandating, facilitating partnering, and endorsing, and in performing each of these roles the enterprises will need to move beyond compliance mindset.

In the mandating role, the key areas are: control legislation, regulation, legal and fiscal penalties and rewards; in the facilitating role the key areas are: enabling legislation, creation of incentives, in partnering, and the focus is on: combining resources, raising resources and dialoguing; and in the endorsing arena the focus is on: obtaining political support and undertaking publicity measures.

Tom Fox , Halina Ward, and Bruce Howard, According to the World Bank study cited above, some of the key constraints in the public sector roles are: lack of capacity to negotiate and implement projects, integrating CSR with the regional schemes, lack of engagement with processes and guidelines, weak institutional infrastructure and weak organized labor, among others.

The third question that needs to be addressed is the need for capacity building in corporations that are seriously pursuing corporate social action on a long-term basis.