writing a summary essay

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April 27, Staff Writers. With all the things you have going on as a student, writing a paper can seem like a daunting task. This image and list-based, step-by-step best dissertation service is the closest thing to writing a plug and chug paper you can get. So, are you ready to ace this paper of yours? The answer to this question is easy: look at the materials the prof gives you. The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. If you know that, you can write to the rubric and pick up easy points along the way.

Writing a summary essay uva mfa creative writing

Writing a summary essay

They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples. However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious.

To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research. An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. For example, in a literature review or research paper, you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources.

In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information. Example of a concise article summary Using national survey data, Davis et al. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables. The exact format for citing depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

Plagiarism Checker comparison. A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words. To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:. Thanks for reading! Hope you found this article helpful. Have a language expert improve your writing.

Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Citing sources How to write a summary. Davis et al. Using national survey data, Davis et al.

What is a summary? How long is a summary? How can I summarize a source without plagiarizing? Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text. Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

Other students also liked. How to paraphrase sources Paraphrasing means putting a passage of text in your own words without changing its meaning. When you paraphrase, always cite the source. How to quote in academic writing When you quote a source, you have to intoduce the quote, enclose the quote in quotation marks, and correctly cite the original author s.

Each citation style has different rules for in-text citation. Still have questions? Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. What is your plagiarism score? Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. What research question or problem was addressed? Are there any hypotheses formulated? The introduction should not offer your own opinions or evaluation of the text you are summarizing.

Body one or more paragraphs : This paraphrases and condenses the original piece. In your summary, be sure that you:. Include important data but omit minor points; 2. Do not include your own ideas, illustrations, metaphors, or interpretations. Look upon yourself as a summarizing machine; you are simply repeating what the source text says, in fewer words and in your own words.

But the fact that you are using your own words does not mean that you are including your own ideas. There is customarily no conclusion to a summary essay. When you have summarized the source text, your summary essay is finished. Do not add your own concluding paragraph unless your teacher specifically tells you to. Step One Prewriting :.

Try to get a sense of the article's general focus and content. Step Two Drafting :. Restate the article's thesis simply and in your own words. Restate each paragraph's topic simply and in your own words. Step Three Revising :.

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Be aware, though, that teachers and lecturers are able to identify this form of cheating. Plagiarism is a serious offense and not worth the loss of your integrity. What to do in the Intro and in the Body. The introduction of your summary should take only one paragraph. This opening paragraph will also identify title, author, publisher, and date of publication. Such details should not be given merely as a list. They should be stated in complete sentences. For example:. Thomas Hardy — , a famous English novelist and poet, wrote The Mayor of Casterbridge in There have been many publications of this work.

This summary is of the Penguin Classics publication. Your introduction will summarize the story in one sentence before you proceed to elaborate in the body:. Here, if you are summarizing a novel, you will state the time, the setting, and the major characters.

You will then proceed to state the problem, the conflict, the rising action, the climax, the falling action, and the resolution—the major points that make up the plot. Only report the story; do not comment or give an opinion. This does not stop you from being creative.

You can also save your summary from dry-as-dust writing by briefly retelling one or two incidents or describing some character traits mentioned by the author. Of course, these should be entirely relevant to the major points. No conclusion! The essay should end with the statement of the resolution of the plot in the body of your summary, so there is no conclusion in a separate paragraph in which you might be tempted to pass comment.

Only if your instructor actually tells you to do so would you have a conclusion that permits such personal comment. What is your experience with writing summary essays? Do you have any useful insights? What are your particular struggles? What do you know about plagiarism and its consequences? Your comments, observations, and questions are welcome.

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How to use Son of Citation Machine. Made with by Graphene Themes. Toggle navigation English Essay Writing Tips. What to do in the Intro and in the Body The introduction of your summary should take only one paragraph. It is crucial to remember, though, that the purpose of an analytical essay is only partly to demonstrate that you know and can summarize the work of others.

The greater task is to showcase your ideas, your analysis of the source material. Thus all forms of summary there are several should be tools in your essay rather than its entirety. True Summary. True summary always concisely recaps the main point and key supporting points of an analytical source, the overall arc and most important turns of a narrative, or the main subject and key features of a visual source.

True summary neither quotes nor judges the source, concentrating instead on giving a fair picture of it. True summary may also outline past work done in a field; it sums up the history of that work as a narrative. Consider including true summary—often just a few sentences, rarely more than a paragraph—in your essay when you introduce a new source. That way, you inform your readers of an author's argument before you analyze it.

Immediately after his introduction to an essay on Whittaker Chambers, a key player in the start of the Cold War, Bradley Nash included four sentences summarizing the foreword to his main source, Chambers's autobiography. Nash characterizes the genre and tone of the foreword in the first two sentences before swiftly describing, in the next two, the movement of its ideas:.

He initially characterizes the Cold War in a more or less standard fashion, invoking the language of politics and describing the conflict as one between "Communism and Freedom. Every essay also requires snippets of true summary along the way to "orient" readers—to introduce them to characters or critics they haven't yet met, to remind them of items they need to recall to understand your point. The underlined phrase in the paragraph introducing Nash's summary is an example of orienting information.

True summary is also necessary to establish a context for your claims, the frame of reference you create in your introduction. An essay examining the "usable past" created by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, for example, might begin by briefly summarizing the history of the idea of a usable past, or by summarizing the view of a leading theorist on the topic. Interpretive Summary.

Sometimes your essays will call for interpretive summary—summary or description that simultaneously informs your reader of the content of your source and makes a point about it. Interpretive summary differs from true summary by putting a "spin" on the materials, giving the reader hints about your assessment of the source.

It is thus best suited to descriptions of primary sources that you plan to analyze. If you put an interpretive spin on a critical source when you initially address it, you risk distorting it in the eyes of your reader: a form of academic dishonesty.

The interpretive summary below comes from an essay examining a Civil War photograph in light of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The essayist, Dara Horn, knew she needed to describe the photo but that simply "walking through" its details would bewilder and bore her readers.

So she revealed the point of her description in a pair of topic sentences solid underline , summarized the details of the photo double underline , and gave the description some interpretive "spin" throughout. As skeptical moderns, we often have trouble accepting drawings or paintings as historical records, but we tend to believe in photographs the way that we believe in mirrors; we simply accept them as the truth.

Alexander Gardner's photograph Trossel's House, Battle-Field of Gettysburg, July, might therefore be viewed as evidence rather than commentary. Unlike some of Gardner's other "sketches," this picture includes no perfectly positioned rifles, no artistically angled river, no well-posed men in uniform—indeed, no people at all. The photograph's composition could barely be more prosaic; the horizon slashes the picture in half, and the subject, a white colonial-style house, sits smack in the center.

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Writing the Summary Essay:. A summary essay should be organized so that others can understand the source or evaluate your comprehension of it. The following format works well:. Contains a one-sentence thesis statement that sums up the main point of the source. This thesis statement is not your main point; it is the main point of your source. Usually, though, you have to write this statement rather than quote it from the source text.

It is a one-sentence summary of the entire text that your essay summarizes. Also introduces the text to be summarized: i Gives the title of the source following the citation guidelines of whatever style sheet you are using ; ii Provides the name of the author of the source; ii Sometimes also provides pertinent background information about the author of the source or about the text to be summarized. The introduction should not offer your own opinions or evaluation of the text you are summarizing.

Body one or more paragraphs : This paraphrases and condenses the original piece. In your summary, be sure that you:. Include important data but omit minor points; 2. Do not include your own ideas, illustrations, metaphors, or interpretations. Look upon yourself as a summarizing machine; you are simply repeating what the source text says, in fewer words and in your own words.

But the fact that you are using your own words does not mean that you are including your own ideas. There is customarily no conclusion to a summary essay. So what you need to do is add an individual touch for your own essay. Tell your readers what motivates you, what your fears are, what you are hoping for and also what fantasies you have.

Use these phrases to get them psychological. Then, work on each section separately and think of a third element that will function as the centre. This will present your essay an air of coherence. When you have all of the information ready, you can now write the outline of your article. A summary is a rough draft of your essay. To compose the outline, take a peek at your outline and find the stuff that you can cut out from it. Then, put these pieces in your outline.

Be certain that you have the suitable format for your outline. Keep in mind which you need to have bullet points, to which you should add the main points of your article, the decision and the debut. Do not forget to bring the names of the individuals who will read your own outline. Some students and instructors may browse the outlines. So once you have finished writing your essay, make sure your outline is prepared.

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