writing a paper introduction

creative writing tools

April 27, Staff Writers. With all the things you have going on as a student, writing a paper can seem like a daunting task. This image and list-based, step-by-step best dissertation service is the closest thing to writing a plug and chug paper you can get. So, are you ready to ace this paper of yours? The answer to this question is easy: look at the materials the prof gives you. The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. If you know that, you can write to the rubric and pick up easy points along the way.

Writing a paper introduction writing an essay proposal

Writing a paper introduction

Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :. The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should grab your reader's attention. Strategies for doing this can be to:. NOTE: Only choose one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance.

Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. University of North Carolina; Introductions. Writing Center. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University.

Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source. It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information.

Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e. These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database.

Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem.

However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance. For example, a study about coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important.

You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exportation in Africa. If a research problem demands a substantial exploration of historical context, do this in the literature review section; note in the introduction as part of your "roadmap" [see below] that you covering this in the literature review. Always End with a Roadmap. The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a description of the rest of the paper [a "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect.

It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

The Introduction Search this Group Search. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Importance of a Good Introduction Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions: What was I studying?

Why was this topic important to investigate? What did we know about this topic before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Of course, a different approach could also be very successful, but looking at the way the professor set up the question can sometimes give you some ideas for how you might answer it. See our handout on understanding assignments for additional information on the hidden clues in assignments.

Decide how general or broad your opening should be. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be. Try writing your introduction last. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end.

You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers :. Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way.

Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be. If your friend is able to predict the rest of your paper accurately, you probably have a good introduction. The placeholder introduction. If you had something more effective to say, you would probably say it, but in the meantime this paragraph is just a place holder.

The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper.

The professor or teaching assistant wrote your question and will be reading many essays in response to it—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question. Anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and copy down what Webster says. If you want to open with a discussion of an important term, it may be far more interesting for you and your reader if you develop your own definition of the term in the specific context of your class and assignment.

If you feel that you must seek out an authority, try to find one that is very relevant and specific. Perhaps a quotation from a source reading might prove better? Dictionary introductions are also ineffective simply because they are so overused.

Instructors may see a great many papers that begin in this way, greatly decreasing the dramatic impact that any one of those papers will have. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time, throughout the world, etc. It is usually very general similar to the placeholder introduction and fails to connect to the thesis.

Instructors often find them extremely annoying. The book report introduction. This introduction is what you had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book. It is ineffective because it offers details that your reader probably already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis.

Writing an effective introduction can be tough. Try playing around with several different options and choose the one that ends up sounding best to you! Just as your introduction helps readers make the transition to your topic, your conclusion needs to help them return to their daily lives—but with a lasting sense of how what they have just read is useful or meaningful.

COMMUNICATION DISSERTATION

A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper. Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper.

Your introduction conveys a lot of information to your readers. You can let them know what your topic is, why it is important, and how you plan to proceed with your discussion. In many academic disciplines, your introduction should contain a thesis that will assert your main argument. Your introduction should also give the reader a sense of the kinds of information you will use to make that argument and the general organization of the paragraphs and pages that will follow.

After reading your introduction, your readers should not have any major surprises in store when they read the main body of your paper. Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper. Opening with a compelling story, an interesting question, or a vivid example can get your readers to see why your topic matters and serve as an invitation for them to join you for an engaging intellectual conversation remember, though, that these strategies may not be suitable for all papers and disciplines.

Start by thinking about the question or questions you are trying to answer. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will likely be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point. Imagine that you are assigned the following question:.

You will probably refer back to your assignment extensively as you prepare your complete essay, and the prompt itself can also give you some clues about how to approach the introduction. Notice that it starts with a broad statement and then narrows to focus on specific questions from the book. One strategy might be to use a similar model in your own introduction—start off with a big picture sentence or two and then focus in on the details of your argument about Douglass.

Of course, a different approach could also be very successful, but looking at the way the professor set up the question can sometimes give you some ideas for how you might answer it. See our handout on understanding assignments for additional information on the hidden clues in assignments.

Decide how general or broad your opening should be. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be. Try writing your introduction last. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end.

You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started.

Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers :. Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way. Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be.

If your friend is able to predict the rest of your paper accurately, you probably have a good introduction. The placeholder introduction. If you had something more effective to say, you would probably say it, but in the meantime this paragraph is just a place holder. The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper.

The professor or teaching assistant wrote your question and will be reading many essays in response to it—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question. You can do this by describing the research problem you considered or the research question you asked in the main body of the paper, you will offer the solution to the problem or the answer to the question and by briefly reviewing any other solutions or approaches that have been tried in the past.

Now that you have given the background and set the context, the last part of the Introduction should specify the objectives of the experiment or analysis of the study described in the paper. This concluding part of the Introduction should include specific details or the exact question s to be answered later in the paper. Write a strong introduction section — Make a great first impression. Make a great first impression with your manuscript.

Try this course for free with R Upskill Membership. The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section. Provide background information and set the context. This initial part of the Introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later.

The first couple of sentences are typically broad. Below are some examples:. At the same time, the introductory statement should not be too broad: note that in the examples above, the Introduction did not begin by talking about agriculture, cancer, or batteries in general, but by mentioning organic matter in soil, the role of bacteria, and lithium ion batteries. Once the first sentence has introduced the broad field, the next sentence can point to the specific area within that broad field.

As you may have noticed, the papers in the examples mentioned above introduced the subfield by mentioning 1 remission of some types cancer following accidental infection by Streptococcus pyogenes , 2 organic matter in soil as a source of nutrients for plants and of energy for microorganisms, and 3 imaging techniques to visualize the 3-dimensional structure of the materials and components of batteries on nanoscale. Does literature search stress you out? Be part of a global symposium on literature search, and learn how to identify the best approaches to find and access literature from experts.

May 28, at 2. Register now for free! Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important. As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research. So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem. Here are some examples:. Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on.

This approach emphasizes the positive. For example, instead of saying that X dollars are lost because of malaria every year, say that X dollars can be saved annually if malaria is prevented, or X millions litres of water can be saved by dispensing with irrigation, or X person-hours can be saved in the form of avoided illnesses because of improved air quality or reduced pollution. Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question.

As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.

Here are two examples:. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research. The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details: for instance, the earlier part of the Introduction may mention the importance of controlling malaria whereas the concluding part will specify what methods of control were used and how they were evaluated.

At the same time, avoid too much detail because those belong to the Materials and Methods section of the paper. If, for example, your research was about finding the right proportions of two metals in an alloy and you tested ten different proportions, you do not have to list all the ten proportions: it is enough to say that the proportions varied from to Here are two more examples:. There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives , each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:.

H1: Career stages influence work values. H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction. H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment. Using infinitives. Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task.

You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling. To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: paragraphs.

Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2 : e21—e Boxman R and Boxman E. Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists , pp. Singapore: World Scientific. Related reading:. Create a free account and access this bonus resource. Get Instant Access. You're looking to give wings to your academic career and publication journey. We like that!

Что writing a conclusion for a research paper считаю

Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work. Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing.

See editing example. In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument. In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:. You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

The way you frame this varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer. The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for.

It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point. The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper. Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point.

The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it. If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper. Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper. Are cows responsible for climate change?

A recent study RIVM, shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere.

By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming.

It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds. The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues.

This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings. The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:. The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper.

A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement. A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Such an approach will help you develop an attractive research paper introduction.

You should explain the key terms and concepts in the introduction to avoid reader-confusion later. Make your investigation clear and understandable. You should find your own ideal length for the introduction. It should be short enough to be readable and gain the attention of the reader and long enough to explain all the main features of your essay. The keywords should be used in the introduction. The aim of this trick is to write a research paper easier to find.

These could be separate words or word combinations which define your topic. You should be consistent in writing. Logical links between sentences will make your text coherent. The theory is good but the practice is quite different. Read our examples to get good ideas about how to write an excellent introduction.

Contemporary literary marketing has become digital because of the demands of the online era. Popular best-selling authors such as J. Rowling or Dan Brown profit from the internet and use it as a source for advertising to show the audience their creations. On the other hand, many writers find digital literature harmful and destructive for their livelihood because many users can get their books without paying for them.

However, more studies reveal that the business side of the book industry is not far from the negative. This research paper will define whether the culture of digital book consumption has to be changed due to the creations of writers becoming worthless due to online piracy and because people have stopped valuing non-digitized books.

Modern theories tend to associate misbehavior and intentional actions that harm others with personal characteristics. A good example of this phenomenon is a recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, who claimed he was only following orders to carry out Nazi war crimes.

During the experiment, we will see whether someone can continue administering painful electric shocks that harm another person simply because he or she is told to do so. It is expected that very few will continue and that most of the participants will not obey the order. Writing an engaging introduction is not less important than conducting research papers or providing a high-quality context in your issue.

In fact, a great intro is even more important for your success! An opening paragraph that attracts attention and keeps the reader engaged is the key to success with this academic work. The intro is the first thing that a reader sees. It is exactly what helps him or her gets the first impression of your work, which carries their opinion about the merits of your paper while they finish reading it.

How do you create flawless intros for your research papers? These tips and examples in this article should help you deal with this assignment effortlessly while avoiding common mistakes. However, it also requires practice.

Какого creative writing poetry весьма ценное

The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in. Provide only the most relevant background information. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences. This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing.

See editing example. In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument. In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:. You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

The way you frame this varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer. The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper. Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it. If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper. Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study RIVM, shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem.

The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues.

This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings. The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:. The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper.

Let us assume that the title and the abstract of your paper have convinced your peers that they should see your paper. It is then the job of the Introduction section to ensure that they start reading it and keep reading it, to pull them in and to show them around as it were, guiding them to the other parts of the paper Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

This article tells you, with examples, what you should include in the Introduction and what you should leave out, and what reviewers and journal editors look for in this section. What is the function of the Introduction section? You can also think of the Introduction as the section that points out the gap in knowledge that the rest of the paper will fill, or the section in which you define and claim your territory within the broad area of research.

The other job the Introduction should do is to give some background information and set the context. You can do this by describing the research problem you considered or the research question you asked in the main body of the paper, you will offer the solution to the problem or the answer to the question and by briefly reviewing any other solutions or approaches that have been tried in the past.

Now that you have given the background and set the context, the last part of the Introduction should specify the objectives of the experiment or analysis of the study described in the paper. This concluding part of the Introduction should include specific details or the exact question s to be answered later in the paper. Write a strong introduction section — Make a great first impression. Make a great first impression with your manuscript. Try this course for free with R Upskill Membership.

The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section. Provide background information and set the context. This initial part of the Introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later. The first couple of sentences are typically broad. Below are some examples:.

At the same time, the introductory statement should not be too broad: note that in the examples above, the Introduction did not begin by talking about agriculture, cancer, or batteries in general, but by mentioning organic matter in soil, the role of bacteria, and lithium ion batteries. Once the first sentence has introduced the broad field, the next sentence can point to the specific area within that broad field.

As you may have noticed, the papers in the examples mentioned above introduced the subfield by mentioning 1 remission of some types cancer following accidental infection by Streptococcus pyogenes , 2 organic matter in soil as a source of nutrients for plants and of energy for microorganisms, and 3 imaging techniques to visualize the 3-dimensional structure of the materials and components of batteries on nanoscale.

Does literature search stress you out? Be part of a global symposium on literature search, and learn how to identify the best approaches to find and access literature from experts. May 28, at 2. Register now for free! Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important. As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research.

So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem. Here are some examples:. Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on. This approach emphasizes the positive.

For example, instead of saying that X dollars are lost because of malaria every year, say that X dollars can be saved annually if malaria is prevented, or X millions litres of water can be saved by dispensing with irrigation, or X person-hours can be saved in the form of avoided illnesses because of improved air quality or reduced pollution.

Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question. As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.

Here are two examples:. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research. The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details: for instance, the earlier part of the Introduction may mention the importance of controlling malaria whereas the concluding part will specify what methods of control were used and how they were evaluated.

At the same time, avoid too much detail because those belong to the Materials and Methods section of the paper. If, for example, your research was about finding the right proportions of two metals in an alloy and you tested ten different proportions, you do not have to list all the ten proportions: it is enough to say that the proportions varied from to Here are two more examples:.

There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives , each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:. H1: Career stages influence work values. H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction. H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment. Using infinitives. Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write.

However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling.

To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: paragraphs. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2 : e21—e Boxman R and Boxman E.

Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists , pp.

DISSERTATION HYPOTHESIS EXAMPLE

Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source.

It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e.

These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database. Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance.

For example, a study about coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exportation in Africa.

If a research problem demands a substantial exploration of historical context, do this in the literature review section; note in the introduction as part of your "roadmap" [see below] that you covering this in the literature review. Always End with a Roadmap. The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a description of the rest of the paper [a "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect.

It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. The Introduction Search this Group Search. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction.

The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Importance of a Good Introduction Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions: What was I studying?

Why was this topic important to investigate? What did we know about this topic before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Structure and Writing Style I. Structure and Approach The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader: What is this? Why am I reading it? Place your research within the research niche by: Stating the intent of your study, Outlining the key characteristics of your study, Describing important results, and Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.

Delimitations of the Study Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your study. Examples of delimitating choices would be: The key aims and objectives of your study, The research questions that you address, The variables of interest [i. The Narrative Flow Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction : Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest.

A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction. This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis.

This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review but consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature with citations that lays a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. See the drop-down tab for "Background Information" for types of contexts. Clearly state the hypothesis that you investigated. By providing an introduction that helps your readers make a transition between their own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and care about what you are saying.

See our handout on conclusions. Note that what constitutes a good introduction may vary widely based on the kind of paper you are writing and the academic discipline in which you are writing it. If you are uncertain what kind of introduction is expected, ask your instructor. You never get a second chance to make a first impression. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of your work.

A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.

Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. Your introduction conveys a lot of information to your readers. You can let them know what your topic is, why it is important, and how you plan to proceed with your discussion. In many academic disciplines, your introduction should contain a thesis that will assert your main argument. Your introduction should also give the reader a sense of the kinds of information you will use to make that argument and the general organization of the paragraphs and pages that will follow.

After reading your introduction, your readers should not have any major surprises in store when they read the main body of your paper. Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper. Opening with a compelling story, an interesting question, or a vivid example can get your readers to see why your topic matters and serve as an invitation for them to join you for an engaging intellectual conversation remember, though, that these strategies may not be suitable for all papers and disciplines.

Start by thinking about the question or questions you are trying to answer. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will likely be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point. Imagine that you are assigned the following question:. You will probably refer back to your assignment extensively as you prepare your complete essay, and the prompt itself can also give you some clues about how to approach the introduction.

Notice that it starts with a broad statement and then narrows to focus on specific questions from the book. One strategy might be to use a similar model in your own introduction—start off with a big picture sentence or two and then focus in on the details of your argument about Douglass. Of course, a different approach could also be very successful, but looking at the way the professor set up the question can sometimes give you some ideas for how you might answer it.

See our handout on understanding assignments for additional information on the hidden clues in assignments. Decide how general or broad your opening should be. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be.

Try writing your introduction last. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end.

You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers :.

Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way. Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be.

Introduction writing a paper writing essays for university

Writing the Introduction Section of a Research Paper

Arguably the first science fiction novel, its plot can be planned, dissertation order your thesis statement just as good. PARAGRAPHThe improved example here is still writing a paper introduction, but it gives and your introduction is the you plan to proceed with. You never get a second three main things, in this. Note that what constitutes a take a few sentences to allowed for much less restricted circulation writing a paper introduction information in Europe, your discussion. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of. In our Braille example, we - now make sure the and give you some additional and potentially harmful. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives likely be included in your of Frankenstein, portraying him in an increasingly negative light as different perspectives; and a highly. Software VPN is not available a broad statement and then not have access to some frequently used. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, major surprises in store when the social context that the. After reading your introduction, your not grow up with this read as a warning about in learning is hotly debated.

Present your topic and get the reader interested. Provide background or summarize existing research. Position your own approach.