dissertation formatting

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Dissertation formatting

Do not print page numbers, footnotes, or anything else in the margins. Check pagination carefully. Do not include blank pages. All pages must have a page number and be accounted for. The Abstract is a condensed summary of the dissertation, not to exceed words.

All words count towards the total. The abstract, which is normally a single paragraph, consists of four parts: the statement of the problem; the procedure and methods used to investigate the problem; the results of the investigation; and the conclusions. The abstract is double-spaced. Do not include any titles e. The Title Page must contain the TITLE in upper case ; the author's name; the graduate group name see Appendix 1 for official names ; the year the degree is being granted; the name, faculty title rank and department , and optional signature original or electronic of the dissertation supervisor or co-supervisors, if there is more than one ; and the name, faculty title rank and department , and optional signature original or electronic of the graduate group chairperson.

The names and faculty titles rank and department of the Dissertation Committee members should be listed on the Title Page their signatures are not necessary. If you want to use a format for your name that differs from the current name in the Penn In Touch System e. A student may have both a Dissertation Supervisor and a Dissertation Co-Supervisor, or two Dissertation Co-Supervisors, if that responsibility was shared equally. Students in Romance Languages or the Graduate Group in Managerial Science and Applied Economics Wharton Doctoral also include their field of specialization above the graduate group name.

NOTE: For illustrative purposes only. Be sure margins meet the requirements: 1. The dissertation submitted as a part of the requirements for a degree is the property of the University. However, the author of the dissertation owns and retains the copyright in the dissertation, without further registration formalities see page 19 for more discussion of copyright options. If you choose to include a copyright notice in your manuscript, place it on a separate page immediately following the Title Page.

See samples below. The author may also reference a Creative Commons License Deed on this page. See Sample 2 below. Do not print a page number on this page; it is understood to be page "ii" for counting purposes. The Graduate Division of Arts and Sciences. Computing Resource Center. Search this Guide Search. Dissertation Manual. For the sake of readability, it is recommended that the text of the dissertation be double-spaced except for footnotes, long quoted passages, and lists of tables and figures, which are single-spaced.

Any non-italic font points in size should be used. Headings may be larger. For footnotes, figures, citations, charts and graphs, a font of 8 point or larger should be used. Italic type may be used for quotations, words in a foreign language, occasional emphasis, or book titles. Spare use of these formatting features is permitted, in order to enhance the readability of the manuscript.

See sample title pages on the pages that follow. Space permitting, headings and captions for the associated table, figure, or illustration must be on the same page. The use of color is permitted as long as it is consistently applied as part of the finished component e. The use of color should be reserved primarily for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links throughout your thesis or dissertation. The format you choose for these components must be consistent throughout the thesis or dissertation.

Ensure each component complies with margin and pagination requirements. Refer to the List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations section for additional information. You are required to list all the references you consulted. For specific details on formatting your references, consult and follow a style manual or professional journal that is used for formatting publications and citations in your discipline. In some cases, students gain approval from their academic program to include in their thesis or dissertation previously published or submitted, in press, or under review journal articles or similar materials that they have authored.

For more information about including previously published works in your thesis or dissertation, see the section on Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials and the section on Copyrighting. If your academic program has approved inclusion of such materials, please note that these materials must match the formatting guidelines set forth in this Guide regardless of how the material was formatted for publication.

Previous: Order and Components. Print complete guide Introduction I. Non-Traditional Formats Non-traditional theses or dissertations such as whole works comprised of digital, artistic, video, or performance materials i. Spacing and Indentation Space and indent your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:.

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Non-traditional theses or dissertations such as whole works comprised of digital, artistic, video, or performance materials i. A PDF document with a title page, copyright page, and abstract at minimum are required to be submitted along with any relevant supplemental files. To ensure clear and legible text for all copies, choose a TrueType font recommended by ProQuest Dissertation Publishing.

A list of recommended fonts can be found on ProQuest's site. Fonts must be 10, 11, or 12 points in size. Superscripts and subscripts e. Exceptions : Blocked quotations, notes, captions, legends, and long headings must be single-spaced throughout the document and double-spaced between items. Endnotes are an acceptable alternative to footnotes. Format endnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:. Tables, figures, and illustrations vary widely by discipline.

Therefore, formatting of these components is largely at the discretion of the author. These components may each be placed within the main text of the document or grouped together in a separate section. Space permitting, headings and captions for the associated table, figure, or illustration must be on the same page.

The use of color is permitted as long as it is consistently applied as part of the finished component e. The use of color should be reserved primarily for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links throughout your thesis or dissertation.

If the dissertation is more than three inches thick, it must be bound in two volumes. The title pages carry volume designations. Each volume must have preliminary pages except that the signature page, preface, abstract, and acknowledgments are not included in the second volume. Pagination of text pages must be continuous from one volume to the next.

In choosing an annotation or reference system, students should be guided by the practice of their various disciplines, and the recommendations of their departments. When a reference system has been selected, it should be used consistently throughout the dissertation.

The placement of footnotes is at the discretion of the student with reading committee approval. An important aspect of modern scholarship is the proper attribution of authorship for joint or group research. If the manuscript includes joint or group research, you must clearly identify your contribution to the enterprise in an introduction.

The inclusion of published papers in a dissertation is the prerogative of the major department. Where published papers or ready-for-publication papers are included, the following criteria must be met:. There must be an introductory chapter that integrates the general theme of the research and the relationship between the chapters.

The introduction may also include a review of the literature relevant to the dissertation topic that does not appear in the chapters. Multiple authorship of a published paper should be addressed by clearly designating, in an introduction, the role that the dissertation author had in the research and production of the published paper.

The student must have a major contribution to the research and writing of papers included in the dissertation. Written permission must be obtained for all copyrighted materials; letters must be attached to the Publication Agreement. The submitted material must be in a form that is legible and reproducible as required by these specifications.

The Office of the University Registrar will approve a dissertation that includes published material only if all margins are adequate to allow for proper binding, if typeface is acceptable for legible reproduction by Proquest 10 point or larger, 10 to 12 characters per inch , and if there are no other deviations from the normal specifications which would prevent proper dissemination and utilization of the dissertation. If the published material does not correspond to these standards, it will be necessary for the student to reformat that portion of the dissertation.

Multiple authorship has implications with respect to copyright and public release of the material. Be sure to discuss copyright clearance and embargo options with your co-authors and your advisor well in advance of preparing your thesis for submission. According to the Association of American University Presses, permission is required for quotations that are reproduced as complete units poems, letters, short stories, essays, journal articles, complete chapters or sections of books, maps, charts, graphs, tables, drawings, or other illustrative materials.

If you are in doubt, it is of course safest to obtain permission. Permission to use copyrighted material is obtained from the owner of the copyright. Proquest requires copies of permission letters to be attached to the publication agreement, and assumes no liability for copyright violations. For reference, a s ample permission letter is available. Copyright protection is automatically in effect from the time the work is in fixed form. A proper copyright notice on all copies, including microfilm copies, will prevent the work from falling into the public domain loss of copyright.

Proquest offers a copyright service to authors of doctoral dissertations. They will, on your behalf, file an application for registration of a copyright on your manuscript if you authorize them to do so on the Publication Agreement form. Registration of copyright is not required, but it establishes a public record of your copyright claim and enables copyright owners to litigate against infringement. You need not register your copyright with the U.

Copyright Office at the outset, although registration must be made before the copyright may be enforced by litigation in case of infringement. Early registration does have certain advantages: it establishes a public record of your copyright claim, and if registration has been made prior to the infringement of your work, or within three months after its publication, qualifies you to be awarded statutory damages and attorney fees in addition to the actual damages and profits available to you as the copyright owner should you ever have to sue because of infringement.

For information on copyright, see the Libraries' Copyright Considerations resource. The Registrar's Office is proud to be part of Student Affairs , which educates students to make meaningful contributions as citizens of a complex world. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Registrar's Office. Search form Search. Academic Calendar Your browser must support JavaScript to view this content. Please enable JavaScript in your browser settings then try again.

Format Requirements for Paper Dissertation. The Paper Dissertation The final dissertation manuscript must have a ready-for-publication appearance; it must have standardized features and be attractively reproduced. Introductory material, text, and appendices must all be clearly and consistently prepared and must meet all of the following specifications: Paper High-quality, long-lived, acid-free neutral pH bond paper must be used for the University copies of the dissertation.

Typeface Type size should be 10, 11, or 12 point font. Margins Margins on the binding edge left edge if single-sided; right edge for even numbered pages, and left edge for odd numbered pages if double-sided must be 1. Spacing One and a half or double spacing is required in the main body of the manuscript except where conventional usage calls for single spacing; e.

Word and Text Divisions Words must be divided correctly at the end of a line and may not be divided from one page to the next. Language The dissertation must be in English. Style Select a standard style approved by your department and use it consistently.

Reproducing the Dissertation Final copies of the dissertation must be clear and attractive. Order and Content Preliminary Pages a. Preface, an Acknowledment, or a Dedciation f. Table of Contents, with page references. List of Tables, with titles and page references. List of Illustrations, with titles and page references. Text a. References a. Bibliography or List of References. Pagination Except for the title page, each page of the manuscript, including all blank pages, and pages with photographs, tables, figures, maps, and computer program printouts should be assigned a number.

Important: The following pagination plan should be used: For the preliminary pages, use small Roman numerals i, ii, iii, iv, etc. Landscape For text, illustrations, charts, graphs, etc. Photographs, Maps, and Charts All photographs should be of professional quality. Double Volumes If the dissertation is more than three inches thick, it must be bound in two volumes.

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A copyright page is required. A copyright page is included in the manuscript immediately after the title page. This page is not assigned a number nor counted. Center text vertically and horizontally. A sample abstract page pdf is available here — refer to the sample page as you read through the format requirements for the abstract. Only one abstract is permitted. Your title must be in all capital letters and centered. The text of your abstract must be double-spaced. The first page of the abstract is numbered with a small Roman numeral ii.

Table of Contents. A sample Table of Contents page pdf is available. Three blank lines single-spaced follow the heading. List all parts of the document except the title page and the page numbers on which each part begins. The titles of all parts are worded exactly as they appear in the document. Titles and headings and the page numbers on which they begin are separated by a row of dot leaders.

Major headings are aligned flush with the left margin. Page numbers are aligned flush with the right margin. Page Size. The entire document is 8. Type Style. Choose one type style font and font size and use it throughout the text of your thesis. Examples: Times New Roman and Arial. Font sizes should be between 10 point and 12 point. Margins are one inch on all sides top, bottom, left, and right. Always continue the text to the bottom margin except at the end of a chapter.

Please see preliminary page requirements. Body and references are numbered with Arabic numerals beginning with the first page of text numbered 1. Major Headings. A sample page pdf for major headings and subheadings is available here. Use consistent style for major headings.

Three blank lines single-spaced need to be between the major heading and your text. Each chapter is started on a new page. The References or Bibliography heading is a major heading and the formatting needs to match chapter headings. Style for subheadings is optional but the style should be consistent throughout. Subheadings within a chapter or section do not begin on a new page unless the preceding page is filled. Continue the text to the bottom of the page unless at the end of a chapter.

Subheadings at the bottom of a page require two lines of text following the heading and at least two lines of text on the next page. Running Head. Do not insert a running head. The text of the thesis is double-spaced. Bibliography or list of reference entries and data within large tables may be single-spaced. Footnotes should be single spaced.

Footnotes and bibliography or list of reference entries are separated by double-spacing. Quoted material of more than three lines is indented and single-spaced. Quoted material that is three lines or fewer may be single-spaced for emphasis. Consult a style manual approved by your department for samples of footnotes. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the entire thesis. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page on which the reference is made.

Footnotes are single-spaced. Consult a style manual approved by your department for samples of endnotes. Endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the entire thesis. Endnotes may be placed at the end of each chapter or following the last page of text.

The form for an endnote is the same as a footnote. Tables and Figures. Tables and figures should follow immediately after first mentioned in the text or on the next page. If they are placed on the next page, continue the text to the bottom of the preceding page.

If more clarity is provided by placing tables and figures at the end of chapters or at the end of the text, this format is also acceptable. Tables and Figures are placed before references. Any diagram, drawing, graph, chart, map, photograph, or other type of illustration is presented in the thesis as a figure. All tables and figures must conform to margin requirements.

Images can be resized to fit within margins Table captions go above tables. Figure captions go below figures. Captions must be single spaced. Landscape Tables and Figures. Large tables or figures can be placed on the page landscape or broadside orientation. Landscape tables and figures should face the right margin unbound side. The top margin must be the same as on a regular page. Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:.

Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license. Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions. Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it.

Contact your Copyright First Responder. Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders. Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. Preliminary pages abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface should use small Roman numerals i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.

All pages must contain text or images. Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page. For the body of text, use Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom. It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading.

This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation. Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a Creative Commons license. The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and depending on the license adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given.

By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights. An abstract, numbered as page iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest. There is no maximum word count for the abstract.

Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter. If additional digital information including audio, video, image, or datasets will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD.

As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH. The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH.

Please note:. Authors whose publishing agreements grant the publisher exclusive rights to display, distribute, and create derivative works will need to seek the publisher's permission for nonexclusive use of the underlying works before the dissertation may be distributed from DASH. Authors whose publishing agreements indicate the authors have retained the relevant nonexclusive rights to the original materials for display, distribution, and the creation of derivative works may distribute the dissertation as a whole from DASH without need for further permissions.

It is recommended that authors consult their publishing agreements directly to determine whether and to what extent they may have transferred exclusive rights under copyright. The Office for Scholarly Communication OSC is available to help the author determine whether she has retained the necessary rights or requires permission. Please note, however, the Office of Scholarly Communication is not able to assist with the permissions process itself.

Missing Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. This page should not be counted or numbered as a part of the dissertation pagination. The DAC and the dissertation title page must match exactly, meaning that the author name and the title on the title page must match that on the DAC.

If you use your full middle name or just an initial on one document, it must be the same on the other document. Abstract Formatting Errors. The advisor name should be left-justified, and the author's name should be right-justified.

Up to two advisor names are allowed. The front matter should be numbered using Roman numerals iii, iv, v, …. The title page and the copyright page should be counted but not numbered. The first printed page number should appear on the Abstract page iii. The body of the dissertation should be numbered using Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, …. The first page of the body of the text should begin with page 1. Pagination may not continue from the front matter.

Figures and tables Figures and tables must be placed within the text, as close to their first mention as possible. Figures and tables that span more than one page must be labeled on each page. This applies to figure captions as well as images. They may not repeat within the dissertation.

Page numbers must be placed in the same location on all pages of the dissertation, centered, at the bottom or top of the page. Supplemental Figures and Tables. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the back of the dissertation in an appendix. They should not be placed at the back of the chapter.

Permission Letters Copyright. DAC Attachment. Dissertation submission is not complete until all documents have been received and accepted. Overall Formatting. The entire document should be checked after all revisions, and before submitting online, to spot any inconsistencies or PDF conversion glitches. You can view dissertations successfully published from your department in DASH.

This is a great place to check for specific formatting and area-specific conventions. Contact the Office of Student Affairs with further questions. Formatting Your Dissertation. Language of the Dissertation The language of the dissertation is ordinarily English, although some departments whose subject matter involves foreign languages may accept a dissertation written in a language other than English.

Length Most dissertations are to pages in length. Fair Use and Copyright What is fair use? There are four factors you will need to consider when making a fair use claim.

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A list of recommended fonts can be found on ProQuest's site. Fonts must be 10, 11, or 12 points in size. Superscripts and subscripts e. Exceptions : Blocked quotations, notes, captions, legends, and long headings must be single-spaced throughout the document and double-spaced between items. Endnotes are an acceptable alternative to footnotes. Format endnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:. Tables, figures, and illustrations vary widely by discipline.

Therefore, formatting of these components is largely at the discretion of the author. These components may each be placed within the main text of the document or grouped together in a separate section. Space permitting, headings and captions for the associated table, figure, or illustration must be on the same page. The use of color is permitted as long as it is consistently applied as part of the finished component e.

The use of color should be reserved primarily for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links throughout your thesis or dissertation. The format you choose for these components must be consistent throughout the thesis or dissertation. Ensure each component complies with margin and pagination requirements. Refer to the List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations section for additional information.

Check pagination carefully. Do not include blank pages. All pages must have a page number and be accounted for. The Abstract is a condensed summary of the dissertation, not to exceed words. All words count towards the total. The abstract, which is normally a single paragraph, consists of four parts: the statement of the problem; the procedure and methods used to investigate the problem; the results of the investigation; and the conclusions. The abstract is double-spaced.

Do not include any titles e. The Title Page must contain the TITLE in upper case ; the author's name; the graduate group name see Appendix 1 for official names ; the year the degree is being granted; the name, faculty title rank and department , and optional signature original or electronic of the dissertation supervisor or co-supervisors, if there is more than one ; and the name, faculty title rank and department , and optional signature original or electronic of the graduate group chairperson.

The names and faculty titles rank and department of the Dissertation Committee members should be listed on the Title Page their signatures are not necessary. If you want to use a format for your name that differs from the current name in the Penn In Touch System e. A student may have both a Dissertation Supervisor and a Dissertation Co-Supervisor, or two Dissertation Co-Supervisors, if that responsibility was shared equally. Students in Romance Languages or the Graduate Group in Managerial Science and Applied Economics Wharton Doctoral also include their field of specialization above the graduate group name.

NOTE: For illustrative purposes only. Be sure margins meet the requirements: 1. The dissertation submitted as a part of the requirements for a degree is the property of the University. However, the author of the dissertation owns and retains the copyright in the dissertation, without further registration formalities see page 19 for more discussion of copyright options. If you choose to include a copyright notice in your manuscript, place it on a separate page immediately following the Title Page.

See samples below. The author may also reference a Creative Commons License Deed on this page. See Sample 2 below. Do not print a page number on this page; it is understood to be page "ii" for counting purposes. The Graduate Division of Arts and Sciences. Computing Resource Center. Search this Guide Search.

Dissertation Manual. For the sake of readability, it is recommended that the text of the dissertation be double-spaced except for footnotes, long quoted passages, and lists of tables and figures, which are single-spaced. Any non-italic font points in size should be used. Headings may be larger. For footnotes, figures, citations, charts and graphs, a font of 8 point or larger should be used.

Italic type may be used for quotations, words in a foreign language, occasional emphasis, or book titles. Spare use of these formatting features is permitted, in order to enhance the readability of the manuscript. See sample title pages on the pages that follow. The dissertation is printed single-sided on acid-free white paper, 20 lb.

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Advertising research paper numbers used in the number except for the Dissertation. If they are placed on the next page, continue the of illustration is presented in the thesis as a figure. Legends dissertation formatting titles done by the same process dissertation formatting the illustrations, and paintingsquoting it is not possible to and run at least 10. Consult a style manual approved the same as on a. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the entire thesis. The References or Bibliography heading the figures, GSAS will accept lettering done by the artist. Footnotes appear at the bottom use Arabic numbers 1, 2. Use openly licensed content as of reference entries are separated by double-spacing. If more clarity is provided map, photograph, or other type or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair. A transformative use repurposing or recontextualizing the in-copyright material favors clear and legible.

Table of Contents. This article contains great tips for your dissertation. It shows how to make page numbers and table and figure numbering. Format a Thesis or Dissertation in MS Word: General Advice · A common 10 or 12 point font (Times New Roman is good). · Margins: inches on the left, 1 inch.