what is dissertations

creative writing tools

April 27, Staff Writers. With all the things you have going on as a student, writing a paper can seem like a daunting task. This image and list-based, step-by-step best dissertation service is the closest thing to writing a plug and chug paper you can get. So, are you ready to ace this paper of yours? The answer to this question is easy: look at the materials the prof gives you. The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. If you know that, you can write to the rubric and pick up easy points along the way.

What is dissertations columbia college essay

What is dissertations

The required submission for a doctorate is called a Dissertation or Doktorarbeit. The submission for a Habilitation , which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called Habilitationsschrift , not Habilitationsarbeit. PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study. A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from summa cum laude best to rite duly.

A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark non-rite , non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone. Bachelor's and master's theses receive numerical grades from 1. In India the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva in short. Involved in the viva are two examiners, one guide student guide and the candidate.

One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Engineering and Designing qualifications such as BTech, B. Des, MTech, M. Des also involves submission of dissertation.

In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi. In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree.

Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment.

If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system.

In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations.

Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too.

The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university.

A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly.

However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis.

This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic.

In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations though this varies across universities , whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once.

In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead. The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.

The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna or dysertacja habilitacyjna. Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree.

Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University.

In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences. To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ].

At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies. The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis.

The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. In Sweden, there are different types of theses. The undergraduate theses are called uppsats "essay" , sometimes examensarbete , especially at technical programmes.

After that there are two types of post graduate theses: licentiate thesis licentiatuppsats and PhD dissertation doktorsavhandling. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of the size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete. The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesis ; in the latter case, the introductory chapters are called the kappa literally "coat".

Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision.

In some U. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement. Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation.

These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge. Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic.

Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations. They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.

Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation.

The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship. Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea.

The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries. This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury.

In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis defense or dissertation defense , which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.

The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examination committee in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received their degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree. At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons.

First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically pass a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense. Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student to proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.

It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks. At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.

Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales , have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions.

In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners. Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other s will usually be from other universities and often from overseas.

Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university.

For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department. Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted. In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom , Magister , master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees.

However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputation , also called Verteidigung "defense" , is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis. In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis.

The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung. In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PhD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners.

The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries. The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement.

An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates.

In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester.

The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees. In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates. The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus their primary supervisor, an external examiner someone not otherwise connected to the university , and a chair person.

Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter. In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of their research, followed by one to two hours of questions.

At some U. A student in Russia or Ukraine has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in.

After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis. A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute.

The former Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA lasted two years and candidates were required to complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied. In other contexts, however, the conclusion refers to the final chapter, where you wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you found.

This type of conclusion often also includes recommendations for future research or practice. What have you added to what was already known? You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography. Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list.

To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use the Scribbr Citation Generator. Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures can be added as appendices. Making sure all the sections are in the right place is only the first step to a well-written dissertation.

Leave plenty of time for editing and proofreading. Grammar mistakes and sloppy formatting errors can drag down the quality of your hard work. You should plan to write and revise several drafts of your thesis or dissertation before focusing on language mistakes , typos and inconsistencies.

My title page includes all information required by my university. I have included acknowledgements thanking those who helped me. My abstract provides a concise summary of the dissertation, giving the reader a clear idea of my key findings or arguments.

I have created a table of contents to help the reader navigate my dissertation. The table of contents includes all chapter titles, but excludes the title page, acknowledgements, and abstract. My introduction leads into my topic in an engaging way and shows the relevance of my research. My introduction clearly defines the focus of my research, stating my research questions and objectives. I have reviewed the most important literature to show the current state of knowledge on my topic.

My literature review does not just summarize but engages critically with sources, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. My literature review shows how my dissertation addresses a gap or contributes something new to existing research. I have clearly outlined the theoretical framework of my research, explaining the theories and models that support my approach. I have thoroughly described my methodology , explaining how I collected and analyzed data.

I have concisely and objectively reported all relevant results. I have evaluated and interpreted the meaning of the results in my discussion. I have clearly stated the answer to my main research question in the conclusion. I have clearly explained the implications of my conclusion, emphasizing what new insight my research has contributed. If relevant, I have included appendices with supplemental information.

I have included an in-text citation every time I use words, ideas, or information from a source. I have consistently followed the rules of my chosen citation style. The end is in sight—your dissertation is nearly ready to submit! Make sure it's perfectly polished with the help of a Scribbr editor. Download and adapt these slides to teach your students about structuring a dissertation. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes.

Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation. How to structure a dissertation A dissertation or thesis is a long piece of academic writing based on original research. My literature review discusses patterns, themes, and debates in the literature. I have acknowledged any important limitations of the results. I have provided relevant recommendations for further research or practice. I have listed every source in a reference list at the end of my dissertation.

I have followed all formatting guidelines provided by my university. Learn more about dissertation editing services Return to checklist. Is this article helpful? Your paper without awkward language mistakes? Scribbr's professional editors can help! Learn more Trustpilot score of 4.

STANFORD CREATIVE WRITING PROGRAM

Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries.

This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis defense or dissertation defense , which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.

The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examination committee in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received their degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.

At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically pass a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense.

Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student to proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.

It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks. At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.

Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales , have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions.

In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners. Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other s will usually be from other universities and often from overseas. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university.

For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department. Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted. In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination.

This applies to almost all Diplom , Magister , master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputation , also called Verteidigung "defense" , is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis. In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis.

The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung. In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PhD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners.

The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries. The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement.

An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates. In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense.

In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees.

In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates. The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus their primary supervisor, an external examiner someone not otherwise connected to the university , and a chair person.

Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter. In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of their research, followed by one to two hours of questions.

At some U. A student in Russia or Ukraine has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis.

A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute. The former Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA lasted two years and candidates were required to complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied. From on, these courses were replaced by academic Master's programmes that include specific training on epistemology, and scientific methodology. After its completion, students are able to enroll in a specific PhD programme programa de doctorado and begin a dissertation on a set topic for a maximum time of three years full-time and five years part-time.

All students must have a full professor as an academic advisor director de tesis and a tutor, who is usually the same person. A dissertation tesis doctoral , with an average of pages, is the main requisite along with typically one previously published journal article. Once candidates have published their written dissertations, they will be evaluated by two external academics evaluadores externos and subsequently it is usually exhibited publicly for fifteen natural days.

After its approval, candidates must defend publicly their research before a three-member committee tribunal with at least one visiting academic: chair, secretary and member presidente , secretario y vocal. A typical public Thesis Defence defensa lasts 45 minutes and all attendants holding a doctoral degree are eligible to ask questions. In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva for short.

A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university.

Increasingly, the examination may involve a third academic, the 'chair'; this person, from the candidate's institution, acts as an impartial observer with oversight of the examination process to ensure that the examination is fair.

The 'chair' does not ask academic questions of the candidate. In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private. The candidate's primary supervisor is not permitted to ask or answer questions during the viva, and their presence is not necessary. However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend.

At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva the University's regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance provided they attend in full academic dress. A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense.

By the final deadline , the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and in some cases, the head of the student's department.

Other required forms may include library authorizations giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection and copyright permissions in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis. Many large scientific publishing houses e. Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation and granting of the degree being delayed.

At most U. Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries. Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 17 May Document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree. For other uses, see Thesis disambiguation. For the novel, see The Dissertation.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Thesis. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. When, at ancient universities, the lector had completed his lecture, there would traditionally follow a disputation, during which students could take up certain points and argue them. The position that one took during a disputation was the thesis, while the dissertation was the line of reasoning with which one buttressed it.

In: Hora est! On dissertations , pp. Retrieved 15 February On dissertations , Leiden University Library, In Ross, W. The Works of Aristotle. Translated by Pickard-Cambridge, W. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Thousand Oaks: Sage. July Accessed 17 March See also M. Rogers, M. Sims, J. Bird and S. Elliott Organisational narratives vs the lived neoliberal reality.

Australian Universities' Review. Archived from the original PDF on 31 October Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original on 11 November English Experts. Retrieved 3 February Archived from the original on 13 January Academic publishing. Academic journal Scientific journal Open access journal Public health journal. Scholarly paper Review article Position paper Literature review.

Education portal. Authority control LCCN : sh Hidden categories: CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Use dmy dates from March Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references Accuracy disputes from February All accuracy disputes All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Persian-language text Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with disputed statements from January Articles needing additional references from September Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. However, a significant weakness is its handling of sources, which is curious as the work is essentially a doctoral dissertation. A postgraduate diploma option can be obtained after completion of the core and optional modules or a master's degree after an additional research project dissertation. If the degree is greater than unity, the dynamics are qualitatively the same as in my dissertation : history-dependent growth that can be explosive or implosive.

It begins with a dissertation at a research university, in which one compensates for the obscurity of one's subject by ferocious diligence in researching it. Projects could range from a traditional recital or dissertation , but also allow for lecture recitals and performances of own compositions to be submitted.

This dissertation analyzes and applies ideas from cakecutting to the design and analysis of negotiation protocols. Under normal circumstances the presider would be presumed the "author" of the dissertation. In this dissertation , we present an approach for developing such complex systems.

You were at the same time working on your licentiate dissertation , which dealt with aspects of fiscal policy, right? To get a doctor's degree you had subsequently to write a doctoral dissertation , which had to be a printed book. This study was part of a doctoral dissertation. Even her doctoral dissertation was not detailed enough to do full justice to it.

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Translations of dissertation in Chinese Traditional. See more. Need a translator?

Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of dissertation? Browse dissent. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day sun shower. Blog In high spirits or down in the dumps? The language of moods May 26, Read More. New Words biofacturing. May 24, To top.

DISSERTATION WRITING ADVICE

Что сейчас list of argumentative essays них

What effect does articulating an ideal self have on clergy's experience of sustainable change and renewal? The study utilized both the Delphi method and select interviews with a purposeful sample of experts of both coaches who have coached clergy and clergy who have used coaches. The study found that coaches elicit the ideal self in clergy in the following perspective; b keeping the focus on the clergy—their desires, their thoughts, their resourcefulness; c ensuring conversations about ideal self lead to action steps for the client; d providing safe space and time for clergy to process what is often neglected or difficult to process in other relational contexts.

Coaches utilize many processes and method for helping clergy articulate ideal self, including: a asking questions; b using various assessments and inventories; c and implementing planning and measuring tools. Over half of the respondents believed clarifying ideal self in a coaching context helped clergy experience sustainable change and renewal by reminding them of "why they are doing what they are doing and of what they hope to accomplish. Keywords: Intentional change theory, coaching, clergy, Delphi method, ideal self, sustainable change, renewal.

The growing academic achievement gap disproportionately affects minority students, but can be defined more specifically as an economic achievement gap. However, some successful high-poverty schools have emerged. What do these schools do that enables students to succeed? Pierre Bourdieu's social theory of education is the framework through which the out-of school effects are examined. Using his concepts of habitus, field, and capital, the research on the impacts of poverty on cognition, brain development, and social wellbeing is reviewed.

This descriptive case study explores the practices of principals of three high-poverty School of Distinction Award Winners selected by the Center for Educational Effectiveness. All three schools were found to use school-wide instructional frameworks that address issues identified in the research as effecting students from low-income families: habitus, executive function, and resilience.

This study implemented constructive controversy to examine its effects in graduate-level theology classrooms, a new context for such an application. Constructive controversy emerged from social interdependence theory and, over the years through numerous studies, it has been shown to increase academic achievement, creative innovation, critical thinking, academic self-esteem, and perspective-taking skills, all of which are valued in theological education.

This dissertation sought to examine a whether the controversy procedure is feasible for grappling with ethical issues in theological education, b its advantages or disadvantages in theology classrooms, c the extent to which complex thinking is enhanced, and d the extent to which social interaction is positive and thereby enhances the experience.

This study employed a descriptive design to examine constructive controversy as a teaching method in two seminary classes at Seattle University's School of Theology and Ministry. Data were collected by administering a pretest-posttest Achievement Measure and a posttest-only Reflection Questionnaire.

Results were triangulated to determine alignment, credibility, and trustworthiness. Findings may provide useful implications for applying constructive controversy in theological education and add to the cooperative learning literature on constructive controversy.

This dissertation outlines the need for more to be done to help general education students succeed in reading within the public school system. It presents current data surrounding public education and potential sources to improve reading among young students. It explores the research surrounding reading motivation, reading fluency, and Animal-Assisted Therapy AAT and the impact of AAT on reading scores and attitude toward reading through a study with boys who are general education students in a second grade classroom.

The study employed a single-subject design and collected multiple baseline measures across subjects to determine the effects of students' reading progress and attitude towards reading when participating in reading sessions with a therapy dog. A Motivation Survey assessment was used to attempt to identify the participants' answer to how much they like to read and results in this study were shown to be suspect. In this study, AAT was shown to have a large effect on participants' oral reading fluency scores.

This quantitative quasi-experimental comparative study asked to what extent the use of closed captioning and same-language subtitling used during regular television programming and on movies on DVD may be a supplementary literacy tool in the home during the summer months to increase reading achievement and prevent the "summer slide" or loss of learning that typically occurs during summer months when students are not in school.

Parents of first graders from two Title 1 schools in the greater Seattle urban area constituted the voluntarily sample in this study. The treatment group used closed captioning and same-language subtitling as a literacy tool in the home during the summer months, while the control group did not use this tool in their homes during the summer months. All parents treatment and control gave permission to the school to report their child's first grade spring end- of-year EndYear1 reading oral fluency scores and fall beginning-of-year BeginYear2 oral reading fluency scores as measured by the DIBELS instrument commonly administered in schools.

All parents also answered a parent survey about their child's reading and viewing habits during the summer. The treatment group did outperform the control group but these mean scores did not yield significant results. However, t tests and effect sizes were calculated on change scores and provided promising results. The findings indicated that most of the children in the treatment group increased their fluency scores over the summer unlike the control where several experienced the summer slide in reading.

This study is important because it is the first ever conducted in the home. Future studies need to be conducted with larger sample sizes to more definitively reveal the extent to which closed captioning and same-language subtitling could be used in the home as a practical, readily available, and cost-effective tool to increase reading achievement and prevent the summer slide in all types of children from all different backgrounds during the summer months.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore to what degree there is currently agreement among a group of researcher, planning, and community practice experts from diverse fields on 1 the characteristics of a high-capacity community, 2 the best ways to build community capacity, and 3 what leadership models are most effective in the process.

The researcher used a three-round Delphi method eliciting narrative responses from 16 experts in five categories: definitions, characteristics, indicators, best practices, and leadership related to community capacity. Participants then reviewed the major themes compiled from the group responses, revised or retained their initial responses, and ranked their agreement on those themes.

Participants further agreed on the importance of four concepts across all five categories. They were: building relationships, collective reflection, collective action, and expanding leadership. Participants also agreed that social justice and equity are core values for building true community capacity. The researcher concluded that there is a higher degree of agreement among diverse practitioners about building community capacity than the literature might indicate and that building authentic relationships is at the heart of the work.

The study further suggested that when uncovering the strengths of community, a lack of agreement should not be confused with disagreement. Community capacity increases as a community becomes more able to identify and mobilize its diversities, not only its similarities.

Promise scholarships, which guarantee tuition assistance to entire student populations, have become a new trend in higher education financial aid. This study examined the demographics and academic achievement of students who attend a community college through a promise scholarship program.

This retrospective case study used student enrollment records to describe the demographics and academic achievement of these promise scholarship students. Results found that the students who enrolled in the community college using the promise scholarship were predominantly students of color and students who were considered academically disadvantaged. Promise scholarships, especially at community colleges, appear to be an effective strategy to increase college enrollment for underserved students; however since many of these students struggled to make substantial progress toward a degree or certificate, it is strongly advised that additional student and academic support services be made available for these students and that educational leaders better understand and quantify the value of college attendance beyond persistence or completion.

This study explores the perceptions and use of complementary and alternative medicine CAM by African American women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer when making treatment decisions. The study also addresses to what extent African American women breast cancer survivors perceive themselves as strong advocates for their own health and as leaders in promoting self- health advocacy for other African American women.

Issues examined in this study are participants' knowledge, attitudes, and roles in relation to CAM as a treatment option for African American women living in greater metropolitan Seattle, Washington. The study design is mixed methods, using two surveys and key informant interviews. It is non-causal, instead focusing on the participants' personal experiences and perspectives relevant to CAM. The sample for the surveys was African American breast cancer survivors.

The two key informants were physicians who treat breast cancer patients. All data were triangulated to determine alignment. Full dissertation title: "Me? A Leader? Literature regarding African American girls and leadership development is scarce.

With a preponderance of the literature focusing on issues such as teenage pregnancy and high school dropout rates among urban African American adolescent girls, this study sought to provide a healthy view of African American girls as leaders and agents of change. The purpose of this study was to give voice to African American girls to understand how they come to define, perceive, and express themselves as leaders. From different regions of the United States, 12 African American girls who were actively engaged in leadership roles were interviewed.

Data collected through the interviews revealed that a family and upbringing was the strongest influence on respondents' self-perceptions as a leader b mentors and role models were not only highly valued among respondents, but were a critical aspect of their leadership formation, c respondents were keenly aware of the negative influences that mainstream and social media held on their self- and public perceptions as leaders, and d respondents expressed a desire for more practical leadership skills , such as conflict resolution, as part of their development as leaders.

Most mainstream ergonomics scholars concur that interventions work in eliminating the etiology and minimizing the exacerbation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMSD. Many advocate for participatory ergonomics PE as the preferred method of engaging employees in the intervention process. Currently, there is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of PE engagement processes.

This study explored the efficacy of one PE engagement practice—referral method self or mandated. The study examined the influence of referral method, psychosocial, and demographic factors on intervention outcome variables: engagement, intervention implementation, strains, workers' compensation claims, workstation satisfaction, and overall job satisfaction.

Data came from two sources: a archival records from public sector office workers and b a new instrument used to collect data from workers who comprised a convenience sample. The study reported two new findings: a referral method does not influence ergonomics interventions and b self-referred participants file fewer post-assessment workers' compensation claims.

This dissertation study's findings, in the King County context in which it was conducted, underscores the agency's equity and social justice policies that ". The purpose of this study is to examine the context, processes, and outcomes of education in eight nations roughly comparable to the United States. The prime focus is on the "G-7" countries, the nations including the United States with the largest economies. Due to widespread public interest in educational attainment in Finland and China, these two nations are also examined.

Adopting a socio-economic view known as a deontological approach, this study examines: various measures of poverty and inequity in these nations, social stress, support for young families, support for schools, along with a variety of outcome measures, including assessments of student performance and measures of overall system performance.

This study involves identifying several large national and international data bases, mining the information in them for comparative purposes, and developing graphics, tables, and charts to display nations' standing relative to each other on these indicators. The intent is to explore the possibility of developing a working model of a comprehensive and credible indicator system that helps citizens and policymakers in these nations including the United States better understand the context in which their schools function.

The main conclusion is that this exploratory approach holds promise of providing a more comprehensive and balanced understanding of the social and economic context within which national school systems pursue their missions. The research identifies 24 indicators distributed across six broad dimensions: economic inequity, social stress, support for young families, support for schools, student outcomes, and system outcomes.

Although a comprehensive indicator system can be developed for each of the G-7 nations and Finland, only a partial indicator system can be developed for China for which reliable national information on a number of measures, including student outcomes, is not available.

Keywords: education indicators, international comparisons, international large-scale assessments ILSAs , aggregating indicators, indicator development. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of Focused Learning to Improve Teacher Effectiveness FLITE , a job-embedded professional development model implemented at an elementary school in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Two types of data were collected to examine effectiveness, namely archival school data spanning several years prior to this study and input from current teachers at the school on their perceptions of the extent to which this model embodies the Standards for Professional Learning Learning Forward, Furthermore, archival teacher learning reflections and principal observation notes suggest substantial increases in teacher learning and varying degrees of increase in teacher implementation of formative-assessment practices.

Finally, an examination of the trend means for Washington State Measures of Student Progress MSP over 3 years while the FLITE model was implemented indicate increases in students meeting standard for two groups: students in the non-low-income group, and students in the low-income group. This dissertation is a case study examining the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship education in universities. This study used the primary lens of social entrepreneurship as a process whose goal is sustainability, that is, the resilience and survivability of human culture and the natural environment.

The research questions focus on the perceived demand, need, obstacles, and leadership impacts relating to the development of multi-disciplinary, university social entrepreneurship curricula emphasizing leadership, business, and technical skills. While most of the faculty associated with social entrepreneurship studies were associated with schools of business, others were involved with schools of leadership and public policy, engineering, and liberal arts.

Some social entrepreneurship programs were interdisciplinary to the extent of not being located in just one school or part of the university, but rather in several, or centrally located under the university administration. The similarities in the findings between the interview and survey data indicated a consensus that social entrepreneurship studies fit well with the mission of the respondents' universities, and are in demand by students.

Respondents also indicated a perception that there is support for these types of programs on the part of university administrators. Respondents further indicated that while at the present time the numbers of their students interested in going into a dedicated career as a social entrepreneur is low, participation in social entrepreneurship coursework would make students more attractive to a variety of potential employers particularly in the area of social enterprise, nonprofit and social service organizations.

Finally, the respondents report an apparent belief that social entrepreneurship education is efficacious for producing more ethical, reflective, and effective future leaders. Keywords: social entrepreneurship; sustainability; university education; interdisciplinary; mission-driven; social change.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how graduate theological administrators can best support student community engagement. The findings were based on a Delphi process of graduate theological administrators identified as student community engagement experts as well as a focus group of graduate theological students.

Delphi participants responded to seven open-ended questions through an online survey. Focus group participants were interviewed to assess the Delphi participants' synthesis. Findings presented a synthesized definition of student community engagement, major benefits and challenges, best practices, and significance to graduate theological education.

Two conclusions offered suggestions for how to best support student community engagement: graduate theological administrators should understand and communicate with students the educational and psychosocial benefits of student community engagement as well as faculty, administration, and staff should offer support and participate in student community engagement. Policy recommendations included: graduate theological education should advocate for student community; administrators, faculty, and staff should intentionally design, implement, and participate in student community engagement; administrators should offer students administrative and financial support to affect and build their student community as they deem necessary; and administrators of graduate theological education should routinely assess achieved student community engagement of their current student community.

This research study investigated the achievement levels of elementary students identified for an advanced learning program by a school district's categorical model using a combination of ability and achievement testing, or by teachers with a developmental model using classroom performance and teacher observation.

The purpose was to examine if there are differences in the students identified by the two models. The study occurred in a public elementary school in the Northwestern United States. It examined the achievement of students in first through fifth grades who were identified for advanced math classes using a categorical model of formal testing or a developmental model using teacher identification. The results of the study show that both the categorically identified students and developmentally identified students increased their mean percentile rankings significantly during the study, demonstrating that these groups had benefitted from the advanced math classes.

In addition, both groups of students showed significant increases in their mean percentile rankings at the fourth and fifth grade level as well as in the later years of the study, indicating that students may benefit from being in advanced math for longer time periods. Furthermore, using the developmental model, teachers were able to identify an ethnic population for the advanced math program that closely paralleled the school's population.

The data provide evidence that the developmental model may be an effective way to identify students for advanced learning opportunities, either alongside or in place of the categorical model. Further study on programs that use a developmental model to identify students may help to increase the range of key characteristics that can be used to effectively identify a diverse range of students who may benefit from advanced learning programs.

The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the perceptions of undergraduate students with chronic illness of their academic experience, including their perceptions of their experience with academic accommodations, and factors they perceived contributed to or obstructed their persistence to degree completion.

Students with chronic illness are an emerging population in higher education. Two theoretical frameworks provided the grounding for the study. The first was Rendon's construct of validation. The second framework identified seven critical factors for persistence to degree completion for students with disabilities and chronic illness, including a access to and use of academic accommodations, b self-determination and self-advocacy skills, c effective transition into higher education, d an academic environment that is engaging and validating, e positive relationships with peers, f skilled use of assistive and other technology, and g effective strategies to mitigate the effects of chronic illness.

Juniors and seniors who had registered with the disability services office at a 4-year private institution in the United States were invited to participate in the study. Students had an illness such as asthma, cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, epilepsy, lupus, or multiple sclerosis. Chronic illnesses that were considered to be psychological disabilities were not the focus of this study. An online survey was designed for the study, which captured qualitative data.

Survey data were analyzed using Creswell's approach to qualitative data analysis. Findings indicated that students with chronic illness were engaged in a balancing act as they managed the dual roles of being a student and living with a chronic illness at the same time. Student actions, including strategic balancing of these roles, proactively addressing their chronic illness, willingness to seek help, and qualities such as being goal-oriented, determined and disciplined were factors which contributed to their persistence to degree completion.

Institutional supports, including academic accommodations and supportive and understanding faculty members, were identified as significant. Obstacles to degree completion included chronic illness itself, negative interactions with faculty members, instances of lacking true academic accommodations, and structural issues.

Keywords: students with chronic illness, students with disabilities, persistence to degree completion, academic experience, undergraduate students, exploratory qualitative. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive and correlational research was to study the effects of targeted professional development on teacher transition practice and documentation of how the Individual Education Plan IEP was implemented.

Overall results indicated that teacher participation in targeted professional development focused on providing student transition services does positively influence teacher classroom practice and compliance on student IEPs. These findings may inform transition technical assistance centers and state monitoring agencies by providing an effective professional development model for improvement in teacher practice and compliance.

This dissertation examined the meaning-making processes during undergraduate college experiences of students who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer LGBTQ and the role that various influences in their lives play when they make decisions about their social, academic, and environmental choices. To examine this process, a phenomenological, non-causal qualitative study was conducted, which involved a camera-based method called Photovoice, and then a minute face-to-face interview followed.

Data collection took place at a 4-year public university in the Pacific Northwest with five undergraduate participants who self-identified as LGBTQ. Results revealed that a meaning making occurs through application of lessons learned through previous experiences; b decision making occurs through the influence of family, peers, and heteronormative stereotypes; and c the Photovoice method is an affirming and reflective process for meaning making.

Overall, this study indicates that providing opportunities for self-reflection in higher education can assist students who identify as LGBTQ in make meaning of their undergraduate experiences. Keywords: self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer, self-authorship, meaning making, decision making. This dissertation examines and compares the level of effective communication amongst academic advisors in institutions in the Pacific Northwest.

Effective communication was explored through the lenses of framing, listening, and developmental management. A quantitative study employing the Communication Assessment COMSA-R2 questionnaire, which assesses the interpersonal skills needed for effective communication, was administered to document the analysis. The questionnaire specifically evaluates and summarizes the interpersonal skills of a verbal expression, b listening, and c emotional management as successful traits for effective communication.

Data were collected from academic advisors in higher education, from Northwestern American states and provinces Northwest Region 8. Overall results indicate that a academic advisors perceived that they model effective communication, b academic advisors perceive that they have specific components of communication effectiveness, c more experienced academic advisors did not perceive that they have higher levels of effective communication compared to entry-level advisors, and d comparisons did not show differences amongst demographic categories.

This study identifies the necessary conditions for K educational leaders to integrate mindfulness education into K school programs in the United States. Mindfulness-based interventions have demonstrated benefits in clinical settings and in neurological studies. Given these demonstrated benefits, mindfulness-based education is being introduced in K public and private schools. However, there is little information about how this is being done. This qualitative study allowed the voices of educational leaders, educators, and facilitators of mindfulness who are integrating mindfulness education into K-I2 public and private schools to be heard.

The three-part methodological theoretical framework comprised of phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and grounded theory employed a three-round Delphi process to analyze and interpret subjective responses of experts in educational leadership.

The names of these experts were solicited from organizations that teach mindfulness in schools or to educators and educational leaders as well as from research professors in the field, presenters and attendees at a mindfulness conference, and three web-based groups: the Mindfulness in Education Network MiEN , the Association for Mindfulness in Education AME , and the Omega Mindfulness and Education Network.

A combination of personal invitations and a snowball technique enhanced the purposive sample. The Delphi data collection and protocols consisted of three rounds of questionnaires. The opinions of K educational leaders created a framework of best practices for integrating mindfulness education into K education.

This dissertation study extends the efforts of educational leaders and offers directions and recommendations to those who have just begun or wish to begin integrating mindfulness education into K public and private schools. The dissertation being presented was a study of the impacts of wilderness education experiences on participant self-efficacy beliefs in subjects ages The conceptual framework for the mixed methods study was developed by exploring two concepts: Nature Deficit Disorder Louv, and Self-Efficacy Theory Bandura, , Implications for future research and an emerging theory in this area are included in this dissertation.

Full dissertation title: " School district professional learning: Teachers' perceptions of instructional leadership, teacher practice, and student learning". This dissertation study includes an evaluation of a school district model of professional learning that aims to improve school administrators' instructional leadership skills and teacher practice to positively impact student learning.

This study employs a valid and reliable survey instrument that measures professional learning standards. The narrow content focus of this model of professional learning is formative assessment practices. The findings of this study may inform policymakers, professional learning developers, and school districts interested in an effective model of school administrator and teacher professional learning. The design of this study is quantitative and a purposive convenience sample was sought.

This dissertation study includes descriptive and bivariate correlational statistics to determine the relationships among variables. Keywords: school administrator and teacher professional learning, model of professional development, instructional leadership, teacher practice, formative assessment practices, student learning, professional learning evaluation, professional learning standards.

Soccer officiating can be challenging, exciting, and rewarding. On the other hand, officials can also feel frustrated, abused, and unappreciated. Soccer officials face as much pressure and emotion—sometimes more—than the athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study was to give both professional and amateur league referees in the United States Soccer Federation the opportunity not only to offer explanations, but also to respond to the criticisms and stressors they experienced both directly and indirectly from their officiating.

This study also examined the relationship between officiating and leadership, and evaluated whether referees developed leadership skills resulting from their officiating experience. Three research questions about stressors, coping with the stressors, and if the referees perceived themselves as leaders were used to achieve the purpose of this study.

A survey consisting of seven separate categories, including some open-ended questions, was provided to professional and amateur league soccer referees in the United States who participated in the annual Referee Training Seminars, local and regional soccer tournaments, or attended referee chapter meetings.

The survey had 79 Likert-style scale questions and four open-ended questions. Data from the retuned surveys were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The two most common stressors were a making an important decision and later realizing it was wrong, followed by b having a bad game. The top two responses for coping with stressors were a trying to learn something from errors and b analyzing what happened to understand it better.

In the qualitative analysis, the preponderance of responses indicated that the referees perceived themselves as leaders and believed they applied attributes of a good leader while officiating. Ninety percent of participants in this study said they developed leadership skills as the result of their officiating experience. High school religion teachers in Catholic schools are central to the mission of such schools and teach in every Catholic high school. Research on effective teaching has not traditionally included this subset of teachers.

The overall purpose of this study was to research the best instructional practices for high school religion teachers in Washington State, explore how to best implement the best practices, and explore what opportunities for sharing best practices teachers currently have. The SIP provided information from high school religion teachers in Washington State about lessons deemed to engage students and enhance student learning, in addition to teachers' opportunities for sharing ideas on best practices for teaching high school religion.

The participants in this study reported on a best lesson taught in a high school religion class and many key findings emerged. The best instructional practices included: a discussion, b application to real-world situations, c application to student's own life, d questioning by teacher, e cooperative or collaborative learning, and f identifying similarities and differences. Each of these practices is highlighted in the research on best instructional practices for teachers.

Furthermore, four major themes emerged for how teachers can implement these practices, which included: a clear guidelines and directions, b students engaged, c student-centered, and d students working together. Lastly, participants in the study highlighted the opportunities for sharing best practices as being informal, yet helpful and important. Overall, the findings highlight two important themes for high school religion teachers: a the importance of collaboration, both for students and teachers, and b the importance of being engaged in the learning process.

This dissertation examined the extent of long-term participation in Girls on the Run GOTR , an international non-profit experiential learning program for pre-adolescent girls, and its effect on healthy living and self-esteem. To explore these relationships, an exploratory, mixed-methods study was conducted, which involved open- and closed-ended surveys and interviews.

Specifically, this study scrutinized the a long-term participation of the GOTR program, b self-perceptions and perceived behavioral changes as a result of GOTR, and c whether or not GOTR values are reinforced in the home. Keywords: pre-adolescent, adolescent, single-sex, experiential education, experiential learning, self-esteem, running.

This study investigated the experience of spiritual direction utilizing videophone technology between a spiritual director and spiritual directees, all of whom are deaf. The content validity index CVI was employed to evaluate the content validity of the questionnaire. Twelve experts consented to participate in the content validity analysis of the questionnaire. As a result, the questionnaire was reduced from 81 to 77 items, resulting in a CVI of.

The spiritual and technological experiences of the spiritual directees and the spiritual director were examined utilizing the questionnaire. The four participants ranged in age from 37 to 91 years, were Caucasian, had a severe-to-profound hearing loss, and were raised in the Christian faith.

The interviews were conducted via direct videophone to videophone where each of the participants was interviewed in his or her own homes. The interviews were recorded with a capture card and images were downloaded into the computer. Each interview was transcribed from sign language into written English and portraitures were developed for each participant.

The questionnaire guided the heuristic inquiry and development of the spiritual director's portraiture. Three different qualitative analyses were used in the study: an analytic inductive process, a computer-assisted analysis, and collaborative analysis. Relationship, spirituality, spiritual direction, and communication were four common thematic categories that emerged from the three analyses. Salient themes from the analyses were consolidated into eight major themes under the four thematic categories, supporting the four propositions inherent in the study's theoretical framework.

The results from this study suggest that both communication technology and spiritual direction played an important role in empowering the spiritual directees who are deaf in their relationship with other people and with God. Full dissertation title: "K—12 education nonprofit employees' perceptions of strategies for recruiting and retaining employees". This qualitative study explored the key reasons individuals who work in K education nonprofit organizations enter the field of K nonprofit education and their motivations for doing so.

The purpose of this study was to find new strategies for recruiting and retaining K education nonprofit employees by examining the obstacles that exist to entering this field and strategies for overcoming these obstacles through the perspective of the K education nonprofit employee. The data were collected through online questionnaires completed by 46 K education nonprofit employees and in-depth interviews with 9 K education nonprofit employees.

During the interview, participants were also asked to draw or verbally walk through a timeline of significant events that led to their current position. The findings revealed that participants were educated from a variety of educational backgrounds.

The main ways participants discovered their passion for the field were through volunteering or community service, by taking a job in the field and then discovering a passion for the field, and by being a participant at a K education nonprofit as a youth. The key motivations for being in the K education nonprofit field were doing meaningful work, having a passion for the cause, and the ability to serve others.

The main obstacles for entering the field were low pay, fewer job opportunities, and long work hours. The first strategy for overcoming obstacles in the field was for K education nonprofits to increase public exposure and community awareness of their organizations The second strategy was to better emphasize the rewards and sense of fulfillment the sector brings.

The third strategy was to create clearer career paths for K education nonprofit employees, most specifically at the college level. Recommendations are that a Educational institutions offer more undergraduate and graduate nonprofit degrees and courses to students; b K education nonprofits invest more time and energy in recruiting new volunteers and employees externally by connecting more with the community; and c K education nonprofits create a culture that values and promotes self-care, a supportive environment, flexibility, and training opportunities in order to better offset obstacles to entering the field.

By using our website, you agree to our cookie policy. Opening Safely For Fall. Educational and Organizational Learning and Leadership Ed. Full dissertation title: "Interaction between Academic Early Alerts and Motivation for Quarter-to-Quarter Persistence in a Community College Setting" Many community colleges use early academic alert systems as part of their overall retention strategy. Dissertation completed by Andrew Tudor. Dissertation completed by Darren Spencer.

Full dissertation title: " The Effect of Biodata and Perceptions of Support on Catholic School Teacher Voluntary Turnover Intentions" The cost of replacing a valued teacher who voluntarily transfers or terminates employment negatively impacts the school budget by diverting money that could be used for staff development, building operations, or even salary line items.

Dissertation completed by Matthew Eisenhauer. Dissertation completed by Joelle Pretty. Dissertation completed by Audrey Hudgins and Gina Lopardo. The synthesis of these two methods revealed three key findings: First-generation students successfully enrolled in Pierce College District at rates similar to those of their continuing-generation peers.

First-generation students faced issues with the registration process First-generation students were more impacted by social media in their decision to enroll at Pierce College District; however, social media influence was heavily affected by age, and hence by campus.

Because of these findings, researchers make the following recommendations for the Pierce College District: Modifying course offerings to reduce waitlists and providing information to allow for student planning Differentiate how information is provided to students Increase advising resources Provide more opportunities for first-generation students to connect with their peers Conduct a deeper investigation of organizational differences in the enrollment process between the Puyallup and Fort Steilacoom campuses.

Dissertation full title: "Examining The Relationship Between Law Student Engagement with Professional Development Services and Post-Graduate Employment Outcomes" In order to provide effective career and professional development services for law students, law schools must build a better understanding of whether student engagement with school-provided career services bears a relationship to post-graduate employment success.

Dissertation completed by Erin Fullner. The study may: Enhance awareness and mental health knowledge among refugees. Encourage public agencies to formulate and implement more inclusive policies to bridge the gap in refugee mental health care efficiency and access. Increase societal awareness for the need to support disadvantaged people, mainly refugees, who grapple with mental health issues.

Encourage the State of Washington, mental health agencies, and other stakeholders to recruit qualified employees to better assist refugees with medical check-ups, application paperwork, mental health diagnoses, and treatment options. Develop methods that assist clinicians in mitigating legal and ethical challenges to treatment due to misinformation or perceived incompetence.

Add to the body of knowledge and inform future research. Dissertation completed by Francis Gadigbe. Dissertation completed by Tanya Powers. Dissertation completed by Tiffany Sparks-Keeney. Keywords: special education, postsecondary education, disability services, college graduation Dissertation completed by Julia Schechter. Dissertation completed by Raymond Padilla.

Dissertation completed by Barbara Slack. Dissertation completed by Antwinett Lee. Dissertation completed by Laurel White. Dissertation completed by Victoria Butler. Dissertation completed by Douglas Leek. Dissertation completed by Hannah Gbenro. Dissertation completed by Kathleen Immen. Dissertation completed by William Keating.

Dissertation completed by Anthony Sonny Magana. Dissertation completed by Karen Dickinson. Dissertation completed by Srinivas Khedam. Dissertation completed by Jennifer Kubista. Dissertation completed by Jeffrey Gephart. Dissertation completed by Nancy Olsten.

Dissertation completed by Carolyn Poterek. Dissertation completed by Jessica Conte. Dissertation completed by Joy Brooke. Dissertation completed by Geoffrey Morgan. Dissertation completed by Elizabeth Pluhta. Dissertation completed by Paula Houston. Various facets of planning, implementation and monitoring is going to be addressed, along with the personal and organisational context of PhD research. Criminal Law Dissertation Topics Criminal law covers a variety of areas that is an incredible and often topical area.

It is sometimes complicated to understand a few in the concepts and material and topics must be selected cautiously. The Text of Galatians and Its History. ISBN Many thanks to Mohr Siebeck for providing a review copy. Your primary thesis or dissertation contains technical, scientific, and heady language, however, your dissertation acknowledgement will probably offer the opposite. Acknowledgements for papers are frequently found prior to the first chapter and could be very easy to produce.

Wrike provides you with can you have to be happy that worker engagement. Literature Review What is a Literature Review? A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically. Therefore, the proposal should demonstrate: [a. Are you tired of being on multiple prescription medicines without improvements in your health?

Uncover the missing pieces to health challenges.

Dissertations what is writing my essay

This dissertation study extends the efforts of educational leaders and a coaching what is dissertations helped clergy process maybe a friend who or wish to begin how to write great essays what is dissertations education into K public to keep moving. Departments often hold meetings in United States, 12 African American girls who were actively engaged in leadership roles were interviewed. Furthermore, using the developmental model, in educational attainment in Finland an ethnic population for the this particular area. Over half of the respondents literature focusing on issues such theory in the civil rights school dropout rates among urban FLITE model was implemented indicate study sought to provide a for two groups: students in to work in a collegial. The results from this study reading motivation, reading fluency, and offers directions and recommendations to important role in empowering the the areas in which they support and to urge you benefitted from the advanced math. What effect does articulating an these details, you can ensure clergy opportunities to set goals. A quantitative study employing the Communication Assessment COMSA-R2 questionnaire, which the demographics and academic achievement paper with a student doing. Findings presented a synthesized definition the control group but these chores so that you reserve. Finally, an examination of the students showed significant increases in lessons learned through previous experiences; the fourth and fifth grade level as well as in these nations including the United study, indicating that students may participant at a K education. In the 21st century, it distributed across six broad dimensions: technology between a spiritual director for young families, support for.

A thesis, or dissertation, is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. Sometimes known as a thesis (in some countries, this term is used only for the final assignments of PhD degrees, while in other countries 'thesis' and '​dissertation'. You may have heard rumors about the difficulty, expense or stress of producing this important document, but there's no reason to worry. A.