You can use and adapt the prompt questions in our worksheet below at different points in the process of researching and writing your review. These are suggestions to get you thinking and writing. Developing and refining your literature review Word. Developing and refining your literature review Word rtf. Writing a literature review has a lot in common with other assignment tasks. There is advice on our other pages about thinking critically, reading strategies and academic writing.
Our literature review top tips suggest some specific things you can do to help you submit a successful review. Literature review top tips pdf. Literature review top tips Word rtf. Our reading page includes strategies and advice on using books and articles and a notes record sheet grid you can use.
Reading at university. The Academic writing page suggests ways to organise and structure information from a range of sources and how you can develop your argument as you read and write. Academic writing.
The Critical thinking page has advice on how to be a more critical researcher and a form you can use to help you think and break down the stages of developing your argument. Critical thinking. As with any writing task, you will need to review, edit and rewrite sections of your literature review. The Editing and proofreading page includes tips on how to do this and strategies for standing back and thinking about your structure and checking the flow of your argument.
Editing and proofreading. Finding resources in your subject: Subject guides. A referencing management tool can help you to collect and organise and your source material to produce a bibliography or reference list. Referencing and reference management. Information Services provide access to Cite them right online which is a guide to the main referencing systems and tells you how to reference just about any source EASE log-in may be required.
Cite them right. There are a number of scholarship skills books and guides available which can help with writing a literature review. Our Resource List of study skills guides includes sections on Referencing, Dissertation and project writing and Literature reviews.
Study skills guides. Skip to main content. However, since the focus of this research is on obesity in children, these will not be reviewed in detail and will only be referred to as appropriate. Main body The middle or main body should: organise the literature according to common themes; provide insight into the relation between your chosen topic and the wider subject area e.
Conclusion The conclusion should: summarise the important aspects of the existing body of literature; evaluate the current state of the literature reviewed; identify significant flaws or gaps in existing knowledge; outline areas for future study; link your research to existing knowledge.
This website is amazing, it really helps break everything down. Thank you, I would have been lost without it. This is review is amazing. I benefited from it a lot and hope others visiting this website will benefit too. Timothy T. Chol [email protected]. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
What is a literature review? The literature review chapter The second step of the literature review is to write the actual literature review chapter this is usually the second chapter in a typical dissertation or thesis structure. What is the purpose of a literature review? Purpose 3 — Lay the foundation for your theoretical framework The third function of the literature review is to form the basis for a theoretical framework.
Purpose 4 — To inform your methodology The fourth function of the literature review is to inform the choice of methodology for your own research. How do I find articles for my literature review? How should I structure my literature review? What Exactly Is Thematic Analysis? Derek Jansen on August 12, at pm. Thanks for the kind words, Becky. ELaine on September 19, at pm. Chol on October 7, at pm. Chol [email protected] Reply. Mohammed Al Maskari on November 15, at pm.
Rosalind Whitworth on February 26, at pm. This was so useful. Thank you so much. Thanks Reply. Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Print Friendly. Additionally, some 2 out of 4 job seekers will be using the Internet for sourcing job opportunities.
Another evidence to support the rise of e-recruitment has been a study by Holm , which found that all of the Fortune companies will be using some form of e-recruitment to advertise vacant positions. The implications are that e-recruitment is a popular strategy for various positions like blue-collar roles to white-collar and professional positions.
The benefits of e-recruitment have been identified in the literature. Employers can use several methods to post jobs in as little as 20 minutes. There are no limits to ad size while they can receive resumes immediately. In contrast, the traditional methods require some time to appear in, for example in a newspaper and might be there for a limited time period.
When writing the dissertation literature review conclusion, you should always include a summary of the key findings which emerged from the literature, and their relevance and significance to your research objectives. If you are writing a dissertation literature review, you will be required to demonstrate how your research helped to fill an evident gap in research and contributed to the current knowledge in the field.
Similarly, you can explain how you used the existing patterns, themes and theories to develop your research framework. You can summarize your review of your literature's significance and implications and provide recommendations for future work based on the gaps in existing knowledge you acknowledged. Finally, thorough proofread your literature review for grammatical, structural, spelling and factual errors before submitting it to your university.
If you are unable to proofread and edit your paper, then you could take advantage of our editing and proofreading service which is designed to ensure that your completed literature review satisfies each of your module or project's requirements.
We have Masters and PhD qualified writers in all academic subjects so you can be confident that they will edit and improve the quality of your to or First Class standard, as required. Your literature review must systematically comply with your research area. Underneath we are stating some essential guidelines for a compact literature review. After carefully reviewing the literature, search for the gaps in knowledge and state how you have analyzed the literature with a different perspective and contributed towards your research area.
Your arguments must portray consistency and a systematic approach while discussing theories, controversial and debatable content. Be logical in your review and avoid vague statements, not to make it complex for the readers. While discussing different aspects of the research, provide a reasonable number of references as your discussion and interpretations must be backed up by relevant evidence.
You can see an example provided in a sample paragraph above. You will be able to find tons of information which will correlate with your research area. State the most reliable sources in your review without jumping into every possible source. Direct quoting is required to make a point more impactful, but you should opt it to a certain limit. While mentioning the points discussed by the prior researchers - link your arguments with their discussion. The literature review is being written with the intent to summarize your perspective, which should be backed up in the lights of literature.
Critically analyze literature with a rational approach and express your opinion on it. Use the correct referencing style. While referencing, one must make sure to use proper referencing styles, i. Different referencing styles are used for in-text citations, while different for end-text citations. Feeling overwhelmed by your literature review? Still unsure about how to write a dissertation literature review? There is no need to panic. Whether you are an undergraduate, postgraduate or PhD student, our literature review writing service can help you have your literature review to the highest academic quality.
All papers completed by our writers are delivered along with a free anti-plagiarism report. We will amend your paper for free as many times as needed until you are delighted with the contents and the works' quality as long as your original instructions and requirements remain unchanged.
Critically Evaluating Your Dissertation June 2, Published by Anastasia Lois at June 9, Revised on March 2, Table of Contents. Gather, Assess and Choose Relevant Literature 3. Identify Key Themes and Patterns 4. Structure of Literature Review 5. Writing Your Literature Review 6. Proofread 8. Gather, Assess and Choose Relevant Literature The first step you would need to take when writing your dissertation or thesis is to choose a relevant, interesting and manageable research topic.
This means that you will be expected to address the question using only the existing literature. Dissertation Literature Review Research Questions How can a company A improve its brand value through social media marketing? Use Keywords and References to Find Relevant Literature Create a list of keywords that are relevant to the topic of research. What research questions the author has answered with their research work?
What fundamental concepts have been defined by the author? Did the researcher use an innovative methodology or use existing frameworks to define fundamental methods, models, and theories? What are the findings, conclusion and recommendations in the sourcebook or paper? What is the relevance between the existing literature and academic sources you are evaluating? Does the source article challenge, confirm or add to existing knowledge on the topic? How does the publication contribute to your understanding of the topic?
What are its key insights and arguments? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research? How would you know until you try? Recording Information and Referencing Sources It is recommended that you start to write your literature review as you read articles, journals and books. Identify Key Themes and Patterns The next step is to look for themes and patterns in the chosen sources that would enable you to establish similarities and differences between their results and interpretations.
Here are some questions that you can think of when reading and recording information; Are any gaps in the existing literature? What are the weaknesses of the current literature that should be addressed? Were you able to identify any landmark research work and theories that resulted in the topic's change of direction?
What are the similarities and disagreements between these sources? Were you able to identify any contradictions and conflicts? What trends and themes you were able to identify? Are there any results, methods or theories that lost credibility over time? Structure of Literature Review There is no acclaimed literature review structure , which means that you can choose from a range of approaches thematic, chronological, methodological and theoretical when deciding on the structure of the literature review.
You might discover that results from quantitative research approach are not the same as qualitative research. You might split the selected academic sources based on the discipline they belong to — engineering and sciences. What you write under each of these three segments will depend on the aim of your study. Section 1 — Introduction Here you will be required to state the objectives of the literature review clearly; Introduction in Dissertation Literature Review Recapitulate your research problem or research questions with a summary of the sources you have reviewed when the literature review is for your thesis or dissertation.
For example: Research problem A has been debated in many recent studies. Example of How to Write a Dissertation Literature Review The below example belongs to the body of a literature review on the effectiveness of e-recruitment in small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom's IT sector.
Section 3 - Conclusion When writing the dissertation literature review conclusion, you should always include a summary of the key findings which emerged from the literature, and their relevance and significance to your research objectives. Literature Review for Dissertation If you are writing a dissertation literature review, you will be required to demonstrate how your research helped to fill an evident gap in research and contributed to the current knowledge in the field.
Literature Review as an Individual Assignment You can summarize your review of your literature's significance and implications and provide recommendations for future work based on the gaps in existing knowledge you acknowledged. Proofread Finally, thorough proofread your literature review for grammatical, structural, spelling and factual errors before submitting it to your university. Contribute to the literature After carefully reviewing the literature, search for the gaps in knowledge and state how you have analyzed the literature with a different perspective and contributed towards your research area.
Express your analysis The literature review is being written with the intent to summarize your perspective, which should be backed up in the lights of literature. Anastasia Lois Lois is an academic writer and editor who previously worked as a college teacher. A writer by day and a reader by night, he is loathe to discuss himself in the third person, but can be persuaded to do so from time to time.
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. Conducting a literature review involves collecting, evaluating and analysing publications such as books and journal articles that relate to your research question.
There are five main steps in the process of writing a literature review:. Table of contents Why write a literature review? When you write a dissertation or thesis, you will have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:. You might also have to write a literature review as a stand-alone assignment. In this case, the purpose is to evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of scholarly debates around a topic.
The content will look slightly different in each case, but the process of conducting a literature review follows the same steps. Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic. If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research objectives and questions.
If you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, you will have to choose a focus and develop a central question to direct your search. Unlike a dissertation research question, this question has to be answerable without collecting original data. You should be able to answer it based only on a review of existing publications.
Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research topic. You can add to this list if you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search. Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some databases to search for journals and articles include:. Read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.
To identify the most important publications on your topic, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out. Learn more. Make sure the sources you use are credible, and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.
You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholar — a high citation count means the article has been influential in the field, and should certainly be included in your literature review. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time.
As you read, you should also begin the writing process. T ake notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography, where you compile full reference information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.
Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:. This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. There are various approaches to organising the body of a literature review.
You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarising sources in order.
Try to analyse patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organise your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.
For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access. If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches.
For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.
Like any other academic text, your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context.
If you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review for example, the time period of your sources , and state your objective.
What new insight will you draw from the literature? Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women.
However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations. In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media. Perloff theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on body image, and mentions that young women are among the most active social media users.
Across these studies, there is consistent evidence that body image issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research on more highly-visual social media HVSM such as Instagram and Snapchat that have gained more recent popularity among younger generations. In the conclusion, you should summarise the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasise their significance.
If the literature review is part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research. This can lead directly into your methodology section. If you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified.
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources such as books, journal articles, and theses related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a dissertation , thesis, research paper , or proposal. There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:.
You start with what was published first and work your way through the literature until you reach the work published most recently. Pretty straightforward. The benefit of this option is that it makes it easy to discuss the developments and debates in the field as they emerged over time.
Organising your literature chronologically also allows you to highlight how specific articles or pieces of work might have changed the course of the field — in other words, which research has had the most impact. Therefore, this approach is very useful when your research is aimed at understanding how the topic has unfolded over time and is often used by scholars in the field of history.
That said, this approach can be utilised by anyone that wants to explore change over time. For example , if a student of politics is investigating how the understanding of democracy has evolved over time, they could use the chronological approach to provide a narrative that demonstrates how this understanding has changed through the ages.
Here are some questions you can ask yourself to help you structure your literature review chronologically. In some ways, chronology plays a part whichever way you decide to structure your literature review, because you will always, to a certain extent, be analysing how the literature has developed. The thematic approach to structuring a literature review means organising your literature by theme or category — for example, by independent variables i.
You can then use these themes or patterns as a structure for your body discussion. The thematic approach is the most common approach and is useful for structuring literature reviews in most fields. Here are some questions to ask yourself when structuring your literature review by themes:. The methodological option is a way of structuring your literature review by the research methodologies used. In other words, organising your discussion based on the angle from which each piece of research was approached — for example, qualitative , quantitative or mixed methodologies.
Structuring your literature review by methodology can be useful if you are drawing research from a variety of disciplines and are critiquing different methodologies. For example, a sociologist might centre their research around critiquing specific fieldwork practices. Their literature review will then be a summary of the fieldwork methodologies used by different studies.
Here are some questions you can ask yourself when structuring your literature review according to methodology:. In this section, you should emphasise the research that is especially important to your research questions and highlight the gaps that exist in the literature. Based on this, you need to make it clear what you will add to the literature — in other words, justify your own research by showing how it will help fill one or more of the gaps you just identified.
Great work. This is exactly what I was looking for and helps a lot together with your previous post on literature review. One last thing is missing: a link to a great literature chapter of an journal article maybe with comments of the different sections in this review chapter. Do you know any great literature review chapters? Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. But wait — is this the right time? Need a helping hand?
Book A Free Consultation. How To Structure Your Literature Review Like any other chapter in your thesis or dissertation, your literature review needs to have a clear, logical structure. Option 1: Chronological according to date Organising the literature chronologically is one of the simplest ways to structure your literature review. What is the earliest literature published relating to this topic?
You will notice that each of our literature review samples introduces the topic by providing background information before analyzing the sources. Pay attention to your writing style. Along with descriptive writing, you should be critical. You should be able to demonstrate your understanding by comparing and analysing one study with another.
Do not forget to cite your sources while discussing them accurately. Your final step should be to identify critical gaps and then move towards finding research questions that stem from these sources. These should be logical, and the research questions should not seem out of place. If you are unsure of how this should be structured, follow our literature review sample.
Focus on how the writing is descriptive first, then critical, and in the end, gaps are identified. Also, look at how the chapter is divided, and the sub-headings that are used. This should be according to the topic of your study. It would help if you develop your literature review straight out of the dissertation outline so that it flows smoothly and is consistent.
Seek help from our literature review writing examples to comprehend all these essential aspects and draft a literature review according to dissertation requirements. We are here to guide you further! Talk to us , and we can help you prepare a literature review that is in line with your study requirements.
Our expert writers take on the responsibility of including all essential elements of a literature review and help you put together an outstanding dissertation. View Sample. Our Guarantees. Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties. Pay in installments. Review the quality before paying in full!
The completed paper will be accompanied by an anti-plagiarism report. If we are late even by 1 minute, we will refund your money. Loved by over , students 4. Just wonderful" Law Student. Privacy Settings. We value your privacy. We do not sell your data and do not resell our papers. In other words, the literature review helps justify your research topic. The third function of the literature review is to form the basis for a theoretical framework. Not every research topic will necessarily have a theoretical framework, but if your topic does require one, it needs to be rooted in your literature review.
So, in this case, the literature review chapter would uncover each of the potential factors based on previous studies about burnout , which would then be modelled into a framework. The fourth function of the literature review is to inform the choice of methodology for your own research.
This is especially true for quantitative studies , as you can use previously tried and tested measures and scales. Finding quality journal articles is essential to crafting a rock-solid literature review. As you probably already know, not all research is created equally, and so you need to make sure that your literature review is built on credible research.
We could write an entire post on how to find quality literature, but a good starting point is Google Scholar. Your university may also provide you with access to ResearchGate , which is another great source for existing research. Remember, the correct search keywords will be super important to get the right information from the start. So, pay close attention to the keywords used in the journal articles you read and use those keywords to search for more articles.
Things change quickly in the world of research and you want up to date information to support your literature. Thankfully, within Google Scholar, you can filter results to a specific date range, so make use of this to ensure you keep your reading up to date. The structure of your literature review will depend largely on your topic area and your research aims and objectives.
You could potentially structure your literature review chapter according to theme, group, variables chronologically or per concepts in your field of research. We explain the main approaches to structuring your literature review here. The most important thing is not to discuss your sources one after the other like a list — as we touched on earlier, your literature review needs to synthesise the research, not summarise it.
Ultimately, you need to craft your literature review so that it conveys the most important information effectively — it needs to tell a logical story in a digestible way. Always assume your reader is not a subject matter expert and hold their hand through a journe y of the literature while keeping the functions of the literature review chapter which we discussed earlier front of mind. Thanks for this review. This website is amazing, it really helps break everything down.
Thank you, I would have been lost without it. This is review is amazing. I benefited from it a lot and hope others visiting this website will benefit too. Timothy T. Chol [email protected]. Your email address will not be published.